7 October 2017

Communication Skills B. Pharm I Year JNTUH PCI

Communication Skills

Introduction, Definition, The Importance of Communication, The Communication Process – Source, Message, Encoding, Channel, Decoding, Receiver, Feedback, Context

Barriers to communication: Physiological Barriers, Physical Barriers, Cultural Barriers, Language Barriers, Gender Barriers, Interpersonal Barriers, Psychological Barriers, Emotional barriers

Perspectives in Communication: Introduction, Visual Perception, Language, Other factors affecting our perspective - Past Experiences, Prejudices, Feelings, Environment

Communication Skills

Communication is an important aspect in every human activity. Communication is a learned skill. However, while most people are born with the physical ability to talk, not all can communicate well unless they make special efforts to develop and refine this communication skill. Very often, we take the ease with which we communicate with each other for granted, so much so that we sometimes forget how complex the communication process actually is. Communication takes place when we are
supposedly at the same level of understanding and comprehension as other interlocutors. Common forms of communication include speaking, writing, gestures, touch, using pictures and broadcasting. Communication is therefore not what is said whether verbally or non-verbally, but what is understood.

What is communication?
Communication is a word derived from the Latin word communis or commūnicāre, which means ‘to make common’ or ‘to share’. Communication is the act of conveying intended meaning to another person through the use of mutually understood signs and language. Communication is the art of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from one person to another.  Communication is the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. The basic steps of communication are the forming of communicative intent, message composition, message encoding, and transmission of signal, reception of the signal, message decoding and finally interpretation of the message by the recipient.
Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another. When you call or talk verbally to your friend, then you are said to be communicating with your friend.

1. Keith Davis: Communication is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another.
2. John Adair: Communication is essentially the ability of one person to make contact with another and make himself or herself understood.
3. William Newman and Charles Summer: Communication is an exchange of ideas, facts, opinions or emotions of two or more persons.
4. Louis Allen: Communication is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening, and understanding.
5. Peter Little: Communication is a process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organizations so that an understanding response results.
6. Murphy, Hildebrandt, Thomas: Communication is a process of transmitting and receiving verbal and non-verbal messages. It is considered effective when it achieves the desired response or reaction from the receiver.
7. G.G. Brown: Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence. But the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver.
8.   Fred G. Meyer: Communication is the intercourse by words, letters or messages.
9. According to Megginson said, “Communication is the process of transmitting meanings, ideas, and understanding of a person or a group to another person or group.”
10. According to Theo Haiman, “Communication means the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another.”

Characteristics of Communication
The characteristics of communication include:
1. Communication is a process: Communication is a 2-way process which involves; listening to others (Receiving) message Asserting/Expressing (Sending).
2. Communication is dynamic: it is ever changing depending on the variables at play.
3. Communication is a complex a process.
4. Communication is a two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information but also create and share meaning.
5. Communication involves the sharing of information using a code.
6. Communication occurs between people and sometimes animals
7. Communication is irreversible: once one has communicated something it cannot be recalled back.
8. Communication is a system
9. Communication must have the elements of communication: Source, receiver, channel, message, noise, feedback.
10. Communication can be verbal/ non-verbal or visual.
11. Communication can be accidental especially in non-verbal

Functions of communication
Human beings communicate for various reasons. Here are some of the reasons why we must communicate:
1. To change in behavior
2. To influence others
3. To express our thoughts and emotions through words & actions.
4. It is a tool for controlling and motivating people.
5. It is a social and emotional process.
6. Communication for improving self-confidence
7. Entertain
8. Educate
9. Establish relationships
10. Inform
11. Solve problems
12. Make orders
13. Give directions
The Communication Process – Source, Message, Encoding, Channel, Decoding, Receiver, Feedback,

Communication Barriers
1. Physiological Barriers
Physiological barriers may result from individuals' personal discomfort, caused, for example, by ill health, poor eyesight, or hearing difficulties. These may also affect one’s personality in many different and mostly negative ways. This can best be handled by working on developing a positive perception as certain physiological features contributing to barriers may not be curable.

2. Physical Barriers
Physical barriers include:
· Office doors, barrier screens, separate areas for people of different status
· Large working areas or working in one unit that is physically separate from others.
· Distance
Research shows that one of the most important factors in building cohesive teams is proximity. Proximity in different cultures is different and therefore needs to be taken in the right context. It has been observed that people coming from rural backgrounds with more physical space available may not feel comfortable in closed quarters as they tend to have larger personal spaces as compared to people living in urban conditions. This aspect alone can become a significant psychological barrier if they subconsciously feel “threatened” by inadvertent “invasion” of their personal space in case an urbanite approaches them in close proximity considering it as a
normal personal space.

3. Cultural Barriers
Culture prescribes behavior. Humans can adapt to different culture once we come to accept it and appreciate that cultures are different so that we can be recognized from others and that no specific connotations need to be attached to one culture or the other.

4. Language Barriers
Language that describes what we want to say in our terms may present barriers to others who are not familiar with our expressions, buzz-words, and jargon. When we couch our communication in such language, it is a way of excluding others. In a global setting, the greatest compliment we can pay another person is to talk in their language.

5. Interpersonal Barriers
Withdrawal is an absence of interpersonal contact. It is both refusals to be in touch with others.

6. Psychological Barriers
There are 3 types of psychological barriers would be discussed as they are the most common ones.
a. Perceptual barriers
b. Emotional Barriers, and
c. Experiential barriers.

Perceptual barriers
The problem with communicating with others is that we all see the world differently. A bad experience would perceptually block out unpleasant things. This could be in the shape of avoiding it and if that is not possible by altering the behaviors i.e., response types in different ways. Similarly, retention filters out things that feel good, and gives the tendency to forget those things that are
painful. It is very interesting to note that how our experiences taint or color our perceptions. Perceptual barriers can significantly alter our understanding and thus affect our communication. They are deep rooted and work in conjunction with our experiences.

Emotional barriers
One of the other chief psychological barriers to open and free communication is the emotional barrier. It is comprised mainly of fear, mistrust, and suspicion. As mentioned earlier the roots of our emotional mistrust of others lie in our childhood and infancy when we were taught to be careful what we said to others.

Experiential barriers
Experiential barriers on the other hand become barriers by virtue of not having experienced them leading to altered interpretation and comprehension. Our experience shapes our view of the world. For example, when children experience trauma at the hands of trusted adults (especially family members) their emotional link with the adult world is severed, creating distrust. They are left with three companions: guilt, fear and feelings of inferiority.

Perspectives in Communication

A communication perspective not only examines the way that messages transmit information and influence individual and collective behavior; it also examines the way that messages create, sustain, and change cultures and communities.  Communication scholars explore the form, content, medium and patterns of messages and how they influence the way that people make meaning and take action.  We examine how messages are produced, how they are circulated among a group of people, and how they are interpreted with an eye on the important consequences of messages.
A communication perspective helps us engage some of the most pressing social, political, and cultural issues facing our nation and our world.  

What is Visual Communication/Visual perception
Visual communication is the communication that relies on vision. As another type of communication with verbal and nonverbal communication, it takes place with the aid of visual elements.

Types of Visual perception

There are many forms of visual perception. To choose a proper form of visual communication, you need to think about the background of your audience, your communication purpose, the nature of your statistics and so on. See some of the commonly used visual communication presentation forms.
1. Public Signs
2. Visual symbols
3.Charts, Graphs and table
4. Map

The different perspectives we experience can be with language as well. How many times have you received an email that seemed to have a certain ‘tone to it,’ and that perception of tone colored the way that you might have responded?
The same words can have very different meanings depending on how one interprets them.
Here’s another example. What is the meaning of the following sentence?
A woman without her man is nothing
Sounds pretty bad at first glance, doesn’t it? Look again. If you add punctuation or change the word emphasis, how does the meaning change?
A woman: without her, man is nothing.
A woman without, her man is nothing. 
The words were the same in both cases. But the meaning has now changed completely. So although we think our meaning may be clear when we use specific words in a certain order, we can’t always be certain that the other person will read or hear them in that way.

1 September 2017

JNTUH B.Pharmacy I year English Syllabus

JNTUH B.Pharmacy I year English Syllabus

Effective from Academic Year 2017-18 Admitted Batch  


 B. Pharm. I Year I Sem                                         L T P C  2 0 0 2

This course will prepare the young pharmacy student to interact effectively with doctors,
nurses, dentists, physiotherapists and other health workers. At the end of this course the student will
get the soft skills set to work cohesively with the team as a team player and will add value to the
pharmaceutical business.

Course Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to Understand the behavioral needs for a Pharmacist to function effectively in the areas of pharmaceutical operation
Communicate effectively (Verbal and Non-Verbal) Effectively manage the team as a team player
Develop interview skills Develop Leadership qualities and essentials

UNIT – I 07 Hours
Communication Skills:
Introduction, Definition, The Importance of Communication, 
The Communication Process – Source, Message, Encoding, Channel, Decoding, Receiver, Feedback,
Barriers to communication: Physiological Barriers, Physical Barriers, Cultural Barriers, Language Barriers, Gender Barriers, Interpersonal Barriers, Psychological Barriers, Emotional barriers
Perspectives in Communication: Introduction, Visual Perception, Language, Other factors affecting our perspective - Past Experiences, Prejudices, Feelings, Environment

UNIT – II 07 Hours
Elements of Communication:
Introduction, Face to Face Communication - Tone of Voice, Body
Language (Non-verbal communication), Verbal Communication, Physical Communication

Communication Styles: Introduction, The Communication Styles Matrix with example for each - Direct Communication Style, Spirited Communication Style, Systematic Communication Style,
Considerate Communication Style

UNIT – III 07 Hours
Basic Listening Skills:
Introduction, Self-Awareness, Active Listening, Becoming an Active Listener,
Listening in Difficult Situations
Effective Written Communication: Introduction, When and When Not to Use Written Communication - Complexity of the Topic, Amount of Discussion’ Required, Shades of Meaning, Formal CommunicationWriting Effectively: Subject Lines, Put the Main Point First, Know Your Audience, Organization of the Message
UNIT – IV 05 Hours
Interview Skills:
Purpose of an interview, Do’s and Dont’s of an interviewGiving Presentations: Dealing with Fears, Planning your Presentation, Structuring Your Presentation, Delivering Your Presentation, Techniques of Delivery
UNIT – V 04 Hours
Group Discussion: 
Introduction, Communication skills in group discussion, Do’s and Dont’s of group

Recommended Books: (Latest Edition)1. Basic communication skills for Technology, Andreja. J. Ruther Ford, 2nd Edition, Pearson
Education, 2011
2. Communication skills, Sanjay Kumar, Pushpalata, 1
st Edition, Oxford Press, 2011
3. Organizational Behaviour, Stephen .P. Robbins, 1
st Edition, Pearson, 2013
4. Brilliant- Communication skills, Gill Hasson, 1
st Edition, Pearson Life, 2011
5. The Ace of Soft Skills: Attitude, Communication and Etiquette for success, Gopala Swamy
Ramesh, 5
th Edition, Pearson, 2013
6. Developing your influencing skills, Deborah Dalley, Lois Burton, Margaret, Green hall, 1st
Edition Universe of Learning LTD, 2010
7. Communication skills for professionals, Konarnira, 2
nd Edition, New arrivals – PHI, 2011
8. Personality development and soft skills, Barun K Mitra, 1
st Edition, Oxford Press, 2011
9. Soft skill for everyone, Butter Field, 1st Edition, Cengage Learning India pvt. ltd, 2011
10. Soft skills and professional communication, Francis Peters SJ, 1
st Edition, McGraw Hill
Education, 2011
11. Effective communication, John Adair, 4
th Edition, Pan Mac Millan, 2009
12. Bringing out the best in people, Aubrey Daniels, 2
nd Edition, McGraw Hill, 1999

JNTUH B.Pharmacy I year English Syllabus

Effective from Academic Year 2017-18 Admitted Batch  


B. Pharm. I Year I Sem                                     L T P C  0 0 2 1

The following learning modules are to be conducted using wordsworth® English language lab software
Basic communication covering the following topicsMeeting People
Asking Questions
Making Friends
What did you do?
Do’s and Dont’s

Pronunciations covering the following topicsPronunciation (Consonant Sounds)
Pronunciation and Nouns
Pronunciation (Vowel Sounds)

Advanced LearningListening Comprehension / Direct and Indirect Speech
Figures of Speech
Effective Communication
Writing Skills
Effective Writing
Interview Handling Skills
E-Mail etiquette
Presentation Skills

JNTUH B.Pharmacy I year English Syllabus

7 July 2017

TS Gurukul PGT English Material

TS Gurukul PGT English Material

This material is collected from various sources such internet, textbooks and other sources for the benefit of the aspirants who are preparing for Mains examination. 
It covers only some portions of the prescribed syllabus.

Note: The blogger is not responsible for any false/misinformation in the PDF 

2 June 2017

Sarojini Naidu, The Nightingale of India

Sarojini Naidu, The Nightingale of India

Sarojini Naidu was an Indian independence activist, poet and politician. A renowned orator and accomplished poet, she is often known by the moniker ‘The Nightingale of India’. As a prodigious child, Naidu wrote the play "Maher Muneer", which earned her a scholarship to study abroad. She became the second woman president of the Indian National Congress. She was the first woman Governor of an Indian state after independence. Her collection of poems earned her literary acclaim. In 1905, she published her first book, a collection of poems, under the title of "Golden Threshold". A contemporary poet, Bappaditya Bandopadhyay quoted "Sarojini Naidu inspired the Indian renaissance movement and had a mission to improve the life of Indian woman.”
Childhood and Early Life
Sarojini Naidu (née Chattopadhyay) was born on February 13, 1879 in Hyderabad. Her father, Dr. Aghore Nath Chattopadhyay was a scientist, philosopher, and educator. He founded the Nizam College of Hyderabad. Her mother, Varada Sundari Devi was a poetess in the Bengali language. Dr. Aghore Nath Chattopadhyay was the first member of the Indian National Congress in Hyderabad. For his socio-political activities, Aghore Nath was dismissed from his position of Principal. One of his brothers, Virendranath Chattopadhyay, played key role in establishing the Berlin Committee. As a political activist involved in India’s on-going struggle for self-rule, he was heavily influenced by Communism. Her second brother Harindranath Chattopadhyay was a renowned poet and a successful playwright.  Her sister, Sunalini Devi was a dancer and actress
Since childhood, Sarojini was a very bright and intelligent child. She was proficient in multiple languages including English, Bengali, Urdu, Telugu and Persian. She topped her matriculation exams from Madras University. Her father wanted Sarojini to become a mathematician or scientist, but young Sarojini was attracted to poetry. 
She applied her prodigious literary skills to write a 1300 lines long poem in English titled ‘The Lady of the Lake’. Impressed with Sarojini’s skills of expressing emotions with appropriate words, Dr. Chattopadhyaya encouraged her works. Few months later, Sarojini, with assistance from her father, wrote the play "Maher Muneer" in the Persian language. 
Sarojini's father distributed some copies of the play among his friends and relatives. He also sent a copy to the Nizam of Hyderabad. Impressed with the works of the little child, the Nizam granted her a scholarship to study overseas. At the age of 16, she got admission in the King's College, England and later joined Girton College in Cambridge. There, she had the opportunity to meet prominent English authors like Arthur Simon and Edmond Gausse who inspired her to write on themes relevant to India. They advised Sarojini "To be a genuine Indian poet of Deccan, not a clever machine-made imitator of the English classics" which led her to seek inspiration from India’s natural beauty, religious pluralism and the essence of the country’s social milieu.
Sarojini met Muthyala Govindarajulu Naidu, a South Indian, and a non-Brahmin physician while she was studying in England and fell in love. After returning to India, she married him at the age of 19, with his family’s blessings. They were married by the Brahmo Marriage Act (1872), in Madras in 1898. The marriage took place at a time when inter-caste marriages were not allowed and tolerated in the Indian society. Her marriage was a very happy one. They had four children. 

Role in the Indian National Movement
Sarojini was initiated into the Indian political arena by iconic stalwarts of the Indian freedom struggle, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Gandhi. She was deeply affected by the partition of Bengal in 1905 and decided to join the Indian freedom struggle. She met regularly with Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who in turn introduced her to the otherleaders of the Indian freedom movement. Gokhale urged her to devote her intellect and education for the cause. She took a respite from writing and devoted herself fully to the political cause. She met Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Her relationship with Gandhi was that of mutual respect as well as of benign humour. She famously called Gandhi ‘Mickey Mouse’ and quipped "It costs a lot to keep Gandhi poor!”
She met Jawaharlal Nehru in 1916, worked with him for the disheartening conditions of the Indigo workers of Champaran in the western district of Bihar and fought vehemently with the British for their rights. Sarojini Naidu travelled all over India and delivered speeches on welfare of youth, dignity of labor, women's emancipation and nationalism. In 1917, she helped found the Women’s India Association with Annie Besant and other prominent leaders. She also presented to Congress the need to involve more women in the freedom struggle. She travelled extensively to the United States of America and many European countries as the flag-bearer of the Indian Nationalist struggle.

In March 1919, the British government passed the Rowlatt Act by which the possession of seditious documents was deemed illegal. Mahatma Gandhi organized the Non-Cooperation Movement to protest and Naidu was the first to join the movement. Sarojini Naidu religiously followed Gandhi’s example and actively supported his other campaigns like the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, the Khilafat issue, the Sabarmati Pact, the Satyagraha Pledge and the Civil Disobedience Movement. When Gandhi was arrested after the Salt March to Dandi in 1930, she led the Dharasana Satyagraha with other leaders. She accompanied Gandhi to London to take part in the Round Table Talks with the British Government in 1931. Her political activities and role in the Freedom struggle led to several stints in prison – in 1930, 1932, and 1942. Her 1942 arrest led to imprisonment for 21 months.
She went to England in 1919 as a member of the All-India Home Rule Deputation. In January 1924, she was one of the two delegates of the Indian National Congress to attend the East African Indian Congress. As a result of her selfless contribution to the cause of freedom, she was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress Party in 1925.
Naidu played an immense role in presenting the nuances of the Indian non-violent struggle for freedom to the world. She travelled to Europe and even to the United states to disseminate Gandhian principles and was partly responsible for establishing him as this icon of peace.
After the independence of India, she became the first governor of the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh) and remained in the role till her death in 1949. Her birthday, March 2, is honoured as Women's Day in India.

Literary Achievements
Besides her role and contribution to the Indian Nationalist Movement, Sarojini Naidu is also revered for her contribution in the field of Indian poetry. Many of her works were transformed into songs. She drew her inspiration from nature as well as surrounding daily life and her poetry echoed with the ethos of her patriotism. In 1905, her collection of poems was published under the title "Golden Threshold". Later, she also published two other collections called "The Bird of Time", and "The Broken Wings", both of which attracted huge readership in both India and England. Apart from poetry, she also penned articles and essays like ‘Words of Freedom’ on her political beliefs and social issues like women empowerment.
Death & Legacy
Sarojini Naidu was the first women Governor of Uttar Pradesh. On 2nd March 1949, Sarojini Naidu died at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. She lived her glorious life by her own words, “As long as I have life, as long as blood flows through this arm of mine, I shall not leave the cause of freedom…I am only a woman, only a poet. But as a woman, I give to you the weapons of faith and courage and the shield of fortitude. And as a poet, I fling out the banner of song and sound, the bugle call to battle. How shall I kindle the flame which shall waken you men from slavery...” Her childhood residence at Nampally was bequeathed to the University of Hyderabad by her family and it was christened as ‘The Golden Threshold’ after Naidu’s 1905 publication. The University renamed its School of Fine Arts and Communication as ‘Sarojini Naidu School of Arts and Communication’ to honour the Nightingale of India.

22 May 2017



African Gandhi ............................ Kennath Kounda
Modern Gandhi ................................... Baba Amthe
Burmese Gandhi ........................................Ong San
Kosavo Gandhi............................... Ibrahim Rugeva
Kerala Gandhi ...................................... K. Kelappan
Mayyazhi Gandhi ................... I.K. Kumaran Master
American Gandhi ...................... Martin Luther King
Sreelankan Gandhi ............................... Ariya Retne
Frontier Gandhi................. Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan


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