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30 January 2016

List of English Prepositions

List of English Prepositions


There are about 150 prepositions in English language. We use individual prepositions more frequently than other individual words. In fact, the prepositions of, to and in are among the ten most frequent words in English. 
Please refer to a dictionary for precise meaning and usage.




The list of prepositions in Alphabetical order as follows:


aboard  
• Is there a doctor aboard the plane? 

about 
• What do you think about Mary? 
• Let’s talk about something different. 
• I've just read a book about Swamy Vivekananda.

above 
• We are flying above the clouds. 
• We live in the hills, 1,000 metres above sea-level. 
• It’s only two degrees above freezing point. [+2ºC] 
• Who came above you in the test results? 

across 
• We drove across the desert. 
• The dog ran across the road. 
• There is a bridge across the river.
 
after (also conj.) 
• We had lunch [1 pm] after the meeting [11 am]. 
• Let’s meet the day after tomorrow. 

against 
• Did you vote for or against the suggestion? 
• He put his bicycle against the wall.
 
along 
• We walked along the beach for two kilometers. 
• There are trees along the road. 

alongside 
• Their boat came alongside our boat. 
• Team A worked alongside Team B during construction.
 
amid 
amidst (poetic) 
• I couldn't hear her amid the noise. 
• We were lost amidst the trees.

among 
amongst (UK) 
• Is there a doctor among us? 
• There were secret police among the crowd. 
• I was amongst strangers. I didn't know anyone.

anti 
• He seems to be anti my idea. 
• Some people are anti everything. 

around 
• We walked around the town for an hour. 
• They all sat around the camp fire. 
• There is a big fence around the house. 
• He was born around 1570. 
• Let’s meet around 7 pm. 

as (also conj.) 
• He is working as a waiter. 
• The risk is as nothing compared to the profit. 
• Ram is as tall as Anthony
astride 
• She sat astride the horse. 

at 
• He is at school. 
• We first met at a party. 
• Let’s start the meeting at 9 o'clock. 
• He started work at 17 (years of age). 
 
atop (poetic) 
• The church is situated atop a hill.

bar 
• Everyone came bar Angela. 
• He is the best bar none.
 
barring 
• Barring rain, we’ll play tennis tomorrow. 

before (also conj.) 
• We had lunch [1 pm] before the meeting [3 pm]. 
• We met the day before yesterday. 
• She was before me in the queue. 
• I would rather die before doing that. 

behind 
• There is a police car behind us. It’s following us. 
• We have a garden behind our house. 
• The child was hiding behind the tree. 
• I am behind your project. I will support it. 
• Viresh finished behind Shiva in the race. 
• She is behind the other children in her class. 

below 
• Much of Holland is below sea-level. 
• There is a family in the flat below us. 
• The temperature is 5 degrees below freezing point. [-5ºC] 
• I came below Vonica in the test. 

 
beneath 
• Our garage is beneath our house. 
• The tunnel runs beneath the sea. 
• Laurence is beneath the General Manager. 
• It was beneath his dignity to do that. 

beside 
• The river runs beside our house. 
• James was sitting beside Miriam. 

besides 
• What shall we have besides coffee?

between 
• Tara was sitting between Ram and Ati. 
• Between you and me, I think she’s crazy. 
• I can meet you between 1 pm and  2 pm.
 
beyond 
• Can you see someone in the distance, beyond that house? 
• This is too difficult. It’s beyond me. 
• The meeting continued beyond midnight.

but (also conj.) 
• Everyone came but Andrea. 

by 
• We came by car.
 • Fireworks were invented by the Chinese. 
• He was shot by a professional killer.
 • It happened by accident. 
• He lost the race by five seconds. 
• The room is 10 metres by 6 metres. 
• We must finish by Tuesday.
 • We were sitting by the window.
 • By my calculation he must be 73.

circa
 • He died circa 1270. concerning
 • Your teacher talked to me concerning your homework. 
• I have some questions concerning your decision. 

considering 
• Considering the poor quality, I think the price is too high. 
• I think I must be going, considering the time. 

counting
 • There were four people, or five counting the baby. 
• That makes $70, not counting the tax. 

cum
 • I have a study-cum-bedroom.
 • She is a kind of secretary-cum-receptionist.

despite
 • We went swimming despite the cold water.
 • He passed the test despite being ill. 

down
 • They ran down the hill.
 • The post office is down the road.
 • They have had many wars down the years.

 during
 • He fell asleep during the meeting.
 • I want to go swimming during the weekend.
 • I was bored during the whole film.

except
 • You can have any colour except blue.
 • They all came except Stephen.

 excepting
 • I can eat anything excepting pork.
 • Excepting Jo, everyone was present.

excluding 
• We open every day excluding Monday

following 
• We had coffee following lunch. 
• He couldn't work following his illness.

for (also conjunction) 
• This is for you. 
• Do you want to go for a walk?
 • You use a corkscrew for opening bottles.
 • I'm saving for a new car. 
• Is this the road for Rome?
 • They passed me over for John.
 • Is this the train for Cambridge?
• We worked for three hours.
 • Keep walking for two kilometres.

 from 
• Where do you come from?
 • This letter is from my wife
. • I bought this car from Henry
. • They prevented me from entering
. • My car is different from yours.
 • We worked from Monday to Wednesday.
 • Paper is made from wood. 
• It can cost anything from $5 to $15
. • The police took my driving licence from me.
 • He died from overwork.

given
 • He is in very good health, given his age. 
• Given the time, you ought to leave now.

gone (UK)
 • It’s certainly gone 11 o'clock. It must be 11.30.
 • He’s gone 50. He must be nearly 60 years old.

in
 • Monkeys live in the jungle.
 • John is the man with his hand in his pocket.
• I live in an apartment.
 • She lives in Bombay.
 • Tara was born in 1977. 
• Trains were invented in the nineteenth century. 
• I’ll come back in two weeks.
 • Let’s meet in the morning.
 • There are 60 seconds in a minute.

 including
 • The price is $70 including $10 for delivery. (Total = $70.)
 • There were four of us, including the baby. inside
 • It was dark inside the tunnel
. • My modem is inside my computer. It’s an internal modem.

 into 
• John went into that shop. 
• If you heat ice it turns into water.
 • We cut the cake into ten pieces.
 • Five into ten makes two.

less
 • 10 less 3 = 7.

 like 
• She is like her sister.
 • She sings like a bird.
 • It’s not like John to complain.
 • Do it like this.
 • I feel like swimming.
 • It looks like rain.
 • I want something cold, like iced-coffee.

minus
 • 10 minus 3 = 7.
 • The temperature is minus 30 degrees centigrade.

near
 • The school is near the post office. 
• It’s 20 December. We are very near Christmas Day. 

notwithstanding
 • Notwithstanding the low price, I don’t want it. 
• They went swimming, notwithstanding the rain.
 • They went swimming, the rain notwithstanding.

of
 • I live in the house at the end of the road.
 • Where is the key of the car? 
• Do you like the work of Shakespeare?
 • What was the cost of this book?
 • He lives in the City of Westminster.
 • It was kind of you to help me.
• This is the cause of the problem
• He died of cancer.
 • Most tables are made of wood. 
• Can I have a cup of coffee?
 • I know some of these people.
 • I don’t know any of these people.
 • He lives south of London.
 • He lives in the south of London. 

off
 • Please take your shoes off the table.
• Keep off the grass.
• It fell off the table and broke.
 • They live in a street off Fifth Avenue.


 on 
• Please don’t put your shoes on the table.
 • The picture is on page 7.
 • We live on a busy road. It’s very noisy.
 • She is sunbathing on the beach.
 • Is there water on the Moon?
 • I need a book on bio-chemistry.
 • My birthday is on Monday. 
• I start work on 7 May.
 • Let’s meet on the weekend. (US)
 • I’ll see you on Christmas Day. 
• You must be on time.
 • He broke his leg on getting out of the car.
 
onto (US) see on to
 • The cat jumped onto the chair.
 • The police are onto us. (slang)

opposite 
• There is a post office opposite my house. 
• She sat opposite him and looked into his eyes.

 outside
 • I don’t live in London. I live outside London.
 • It was very cold outside the car. 
• This is outside my scope. 

over 
• We are flying over the mountains.
 • Put the blanket over the bed.
 • The cat jumped over the wall.
 • Let’s discuss it over dinner. 
• The king ruled over the country for many years. 
• The town is just over the border.
 •There is rain over the whole country.

past 
• I saw you yesterday when we drove past your school. 
• The post office is just past the police station.
 • Don’t work past your bed-time.
 • This is difficult. It’s past me.
 • It’s nearly ten minutes past five. 5.09 to be precise.

 pending
 • We cannot supply you pending payment.
• Pending his return, we can do nothing. 

 per 
• The speed limit is 70 miles per hour. 
• The carpet costs $10 per square metre.

 plus
 • 2 plus 2 = 4.
 • There will be three of us, plus the baby. .

pro 
• Are you pro capital punishment?
 • He is generally pro new ideas.

re 
• Re: your letter dated 21 May
 • I want to talk you re the proposed meeting. regarding 
• I would like to speak to you regarding my homework.
 • Regarding John, let’s talk later.

 respecting
 • I would like to speak to you respecting my homework.
 • I am writing to you respecting our latest products.

round
 • I live round the corner.
 • They all sat round the fire.
 • There is a hedge round the house.

save (formal) 
• All save Mrs Jones were present. saving (formal)
 • Saving yourself, nobody thanked me.
 
since (also conj.) 
• I haven’t seen Josef since Monday. 
• Mr Brown has worked in a bank since 1985.

than (also conj.) 
• He is a writer than whom there is no finer.
 • Your car is bigger than my car.

 through thru (US)
 • The train goes through a tunnel.
 • I can see light through the keyhole. 
• You have been through a difficult experience.
 • You went through a red light. 
• The error occurred through my own stupidity.
 • They worked Monday through Thursday. 

[US] throughout
 • It is raining throughout the whole country. He worked throughout the day, and most of the night.

till (also conj.) 
• I work from 9 am till 5 pm. 
• Please wait till I come.

 to 
• Could you give this to Kob?
 • My car does 10 miles to the litre
. • To his surprise, the door was open. 
• The museum is open from Monday to Friday. 
• The time is ten to five. [4.50]

 touching 
• Touching your homework, I think we need to speak.

 toward (US) 
towards (UK)
 • He drove off toward(s) the mountain.
 • I’d better go. It’s getting toward(s) midnight.
 • He contributed $100,000 toward(s) the new building.
 • It’s the first step toward(s) peace.
 • He has a positive attitude toward(s) his work.

under
 • The mouse ran under the chair.
 • The bucket is under the sink.
 • Submarines can travel under water.
 • We drove under a bridge.
 • I have a T-shirt under my pullover.
 • Who do you work under? Who is your boss? 
• I am under orders from the President.
 • What is the subject under discussion?
• Under the company rules, we can’t do that. 


underneath
 • The nurse put a pillow underneath his head.
 • There is a big cellar underneath our house.
 
unlike 
• That’s very unusual. It’s unlike Andrea to be so rude. 
• This problem is unlike any we have met before.
 
until (formal, also conj.)
 • They continued the meeting until 11 pm. 
• Please wait until I come. 

up 
• Jack and Jill ran up the hill. 
• There is a post office up the street.

 upon (formal) 
• Please don’t put your shoes upon the table.
 • There are now no dinosaurs upon Earth. 
• I need a book upon bio-chemistry.
 • We met upon a Monday.
 • He broke his leg upon getting out of the car.

versus 
• He was the judge in the case of Gore versus Bush.
 • We should choose peace versus war.

 via 
• We flew from Paris to Bangkok via Dubai.

with 
• Do you live with your parents? 
 • I discussed it with her.
 • With your permission, I’d like to go.
 • If you mix red with yellow you get orange.
 • Muriel is the girl with black hair.
 • Do you want to come with us?
 • I made this chair with my own hands.
 • You’ll forget her with time. 

within 
• There is a modem within the computer.
 • I will finish within 30 minutes.
 • He lives within 10 miles of his work
. • It’s not within my power to help you.

 without
 • I want trousers without buttons.
 • I came without my wife because she is working.
 • He watched without speaking. 

worth 
• This car is worth One lakh rupees

according to
• According to John, Mary was late. I believe John.

ahead of
 • Anthony is ahead of Rachel in the race. He’ll win.
• We have a long day ahead of us. Let’s get going! 

à la (from French)
 • It’s a TV show à la CNN. Same style, similar content. 

along with 
• Do you want some pork along with the chicken?

 apart from 
• Nobody objected apart from you, so we did it.

 as for 
• As for Matt, he will arrive later.

 aside from 
• I have another car aside from this one. Both are red.

as per 
• We must work strictly as per the law. 

as to 
• As to your behaviour, I think you were wrong.

 as well as 
• You should telephone as well as write, just to be sure.

 away from
 • The cat ran away from the dog and escaped
.
 because of
 • We can’t play tennis because of the rain.

 but for 
• It’s your fault! But for you, I’d have been on time.

 by means of
 • You open a door by means of its handle.

 close to 
• My car is close to your car. About two cars away

. contrary to 
• Contrary to expectations, the euro fell in value.

 depending on 
• We’ll play tennis tomorrow, depending on the rain.

due to 
• The cancellation was due to the rain. There was no other reason.

 except for 
• Everyone was present, except for Mary. She stayed at home.

 forward of 
• He was sitting forward of me in the plane. I could just see the back of his head.

 further to 
• Further to your letter, I have spoken to Mr Brahmam. 

in addition to
 • There were two people in addition to me. So that made three of us. 

in between 
• He is in between the two opinions. He wants to compromise..

 in case of
 • You can phone me in case of need. Day or night.

 in face of
 • He reacts bravely in face of danger. 

in favour of 
• I am not in favour of your idea. It won’t work.

 in front of 
• You can park your car in front of my house. 
• I couldn't see the film because the woman in front of me was wearing a big hat.

 in lieu of
 • I don’t have any dollars. Can I pay rupee in lieu of dollars?

 in spite of
 • We went swimming in spite of the cold water.

 instead of
 • We don’t have any tea. Would you like coffee instead of tea?

 in view of
 • In view of your illness, we will wait for a week.

irrespective of 
• I don’t like it, irrespective of what you say. 
• Irrespective of the price, I don’t want it. Price isn't everything.

 near to 
• There is a restaurant near to my office. Just two minutes away.

 • next to
 • The school is next to the bank. Between the hotel and the bank.

 on account of 
• Don’t worry on account of me. Think about yourself.

 on behalf of
 • I'm calling you on behalf of Mr Brown. I represent him in legal matters.

 on board
 • Is there a doctor on board this plane?

 on to (UK) see onto 
• The cat jumped on to the chair.

 on top of 
• The cat is sitting on top of the television.

 opposite to
 • There is a tree opposite to the house. Straight across the road.

 other than 
• Sorry, we’re out of whisky. But we have every drink other than whisky.

 out of 
• Take your hands out of your pockets and help me!
 • We’re out of eggs. Shall I buy some? 

outside of
 • They stopped outside of the city to check the map before entering.

 owing to 
• We didn't go swimming, owing to the cold weather.

preparatory to 
• I made a graph preparatory to the meeting, so everything was ready.

 prior to
 • I never spoke French prior to living in France. But I learned quickly after coming to France. 

regardless of 
• I don’t want it, regardless of the price. Even if it’s free, I just don’t want it. 

save for
 • Everyone came, save for Lek who had to work.

 thanks to 
• Thanks to Shirley, we arrived on time. 

 together with
 • I’d like chicken please, together with vegetables.

 up against
 • We are up against a powerful enemy. 

up to 
• There was a shop here up to 1990. But it closed that year. 

up until 
• We worked up until they came. Then we stopped. 

vis-à-vis (from French) 
• I prefer Jaguar cars vis-à-vis BMW cars.
• I need to speak to you vis-à-vis your homework. 

with reference to
 • With reference to your comments, I’ll reply soon.

 • I am writing with reference to your order.

 with regard to 
• I’d like to speak to you with regard to your work.





21 January 2016

Punctuation Marks

Punctuation Marks



A woman without her man is nothing

An English professor wrote THIS on the whiteboard:

“A woman without her man is nothing”
and asked his students to punctuate it correctly.

All the males in the class wrote:
 “A woman, without her man, is nothing”

All the females in the class wrote:
 “A woman: without her, man is nothing”

 Punctuation is powerful!

What is punctuation?

Punctuation isn’t GRAMMAR.
Grammar is all about WORDS. The way they work together.
Punctuation is just a set of marks/squiggles used to make reading easier. Just a way of using marks on the page – or on the screen - to make the text clearer and to make reading easier.

Punctuation marks include

? question mark (Americans call it a question point) 
! exclamation mark 
, comma
 : colon 
. full stop (period in American English)
; semi colon 
“ ” quotation marks
 ‘ ’ inverted commas 
 ¶ The pilcrow


Startup India

Startup India


Startup India

15 January 2016

Names of Spices and Lentils in English and Telugu

Names of Spices and Lentils in English and Telugu

Sl.No
English
Telugu
1
Green Ginger
Allam(అల్లం)
2
Garlic
Velluli (వెల్లులి)
3
Mustard seeds
Aavalu (ఆవాలు)
4
Cumin Seeds
Cumin Seeds (జీలకర్ర) 
5
Poppy Seeds
Gasagasalu (గసగసాలు)
6
Black Pepper
Miriyalu (మిరియాలు) 
7
Camphor
Karpuram  (కర్పూరం)

8
Turmeric
Turmeric (పసుపు)
9
Saffron
Kumkum puvvu (కుంకుం పువ్వు)
10
Cardamom
Yelakulu (ఏలకులు) 
11
Ajowan





Vamu (వాము)
12
Assafoetida
Enguva  (ఇంగువ)
13
Star Anise
Anasa Puvvu (అనాస పువ్వు) 
14
Chebulic Myrobalan
Karakkaya (కరక్కాయ)
15
Curry Leaf
karivepaku (కరివేపాకు)
16
Bay leaf
Biryani aku (బిర్యాని ఆకు)
17
Fenugreek Seeds
Menthulu (మెంతులు)
18
Coriander Seeds
Dhaniyalu (ధనియాలు)
19
Copra
Kobbari  (కొబ్బరి)
20
Coconut
Kobbari kaya (కొబ్బరి కాయ)
21
Tamarind
Chintapandu (చింతపండు)
22
Sugar
Panchadara (పంచదార)
23
Nutmeg
Jajikaya (జాజికాయ)
24
Mace
Japatri (జాపత్రి)
25
Fennel
Sompu (సోంపు)

26
Betal Nut
Tamalapakulu (తమలపాకులు)
27
Honey
Theney (తేనీ)
28
Long Pepper
Toka Miriyalu (తొక మిర్యాలు)
29
Cinnamon
Dalchina chekka (దాల్చిన చెక్క)
30
Gingely Seeds
Nuvvulu (నువ్వులు)
31
Ghee
Neyyi (నెయ్యి) 
32
Mint
Pudina (పుదినా)
32
Almond
Badam (బాదాం)
33
Cashew nuts
Jeedi pappu
(జీడి పప్పు)
34
Jaggery
Bellam (బెల్లం)
35
Wailong
Marati mogga (మరాటి మొగ్గ)
36
Mango Ginger
Mamidi Allam (మామిడి అల్లం)
37
Dry Chilli
Endu mirapakaya  (ఎండు మిరపకాయలు) 
38
Clove
Lavagam (లవంగం)
39
Peanut, Ground Nut
Veru senaga (వేరు సెనగ)
40
Sago
Saggubiyyam (సగ్గుబియ్యం)
41
Dried Ginger
Sonti (సొంటి)
42
Betal Nut
Vakka (వక్క)
43
Aniseeds
Sompu ginjalu (సోంపు గింజలు)
44
Shaw jeera
Shajeera (షాజీర)
45
Vermicelli
Semya (సేమ్య)
46
Urad Dal, Black Dal
Minapa pappu (మినప పప్పు)
46
Moong Dal
Pesara Pappu (పెసర పప్పు)
47
Rice
Biyyam (బియ్యం)
48
Red Gram, Tur Dal
Kandi pappu 
(కంది పప్పు)
49
Flattend Rice
Atukulu (అటుకులు)
50
Puffed Rice
Maramaralu, Borugulu (మరమరాలు, బొరుగులు)
51
Papad
Appadam (అప్పడం)
52
Horse Gram
Vulavalu (ఉలవలు)
53
Wheat
Godumalu (గోదుమలు)
54
Millet
Jonnalu (జొన్నలు)
55
Maize
Mokka Jonna 
(మొక్క జొన్న)
56
Channa Dal
Senaga Pappu 
(సెనగ పప్పు)
57
Roasted Channa Dal
Putnala Pappu 
(పుట్నాల పప్పు)
58
Alum
Patika (పటిక)
59
Gall nut
Machikaya (మాచికాయ) 
60
Linseed
Avesa Ginjalu (అవెస గింజలు)
61
Soap Nut
Kunkudu Kayalu (కుంకుడు కాయలు)
62
Sandal
Chandanam (చందనం)
63
Basil
Tulasi (తులసి)
64
Candy Sugar
Patika Bellam (పటిక బెల్లం)

65
Sour Mango Powder
Amchoor (అమ్చూర్)
66
Gooseberry
Usiri Kaya (ఉసిరి కాయ)
67
Black Cardamom
Nalla elakulu  ( నల్ల ఏలకులు)
68
Chironji
Sara Pappu (సార పప్పు)
69
Black Salt
Nalla Vuppu (నల్ల ఉప్పు)
70
Kalonji
Nalla  jeelakarra, Onion seeds (నల్ల జీలకర్ర, ఉల్లి విత్తనాలు)
71
Gum
Jiguru (జిగురు) 
72
Citric Acid
Nimma Vuppu (నిమ్మ ఉప్పు)
73
Crystal Salt
Kallu Uppu (కళ్ళు ఉప్పు)
74
Salt
Uppu (ఉప్పు)

sh

       
   
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