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25 February 2010

MOTHER TERESA

MOTHER TERESA

1.Write a short note on the early life of Mother Teresa.



One of the great servants of humanity, Mother Theresa was born on August 26, 1910. Her actual name was Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu. She was an Albanian Roman Catholic nun, who subsequently acquired Indian Citizenship. She was the youngest of the children of the family from Shkoder, Albania, born to Nikolle and Drana Bojazhiu. Her father was involved in Albanian politics. Her father died when Agnes was only eight years old. After her father’s death, her mother raised her as a Roman Catholic. Since her early years, Agnes was attracted by stories of the lives of missionaries and their service, and by age 12 was convinced that she should commit herself to a religious life. She left home at age 18 to join the Sisters of Loreto as a missionary. She never again saw her mother or sister.

Agnes initially went to the Loreto Abbey in Rathfarnham, Ireland, to learn English, the language the Sisters of Loreto used to teach school children in India. She arrived in India in 1929, and began her work in Darjeeling, near the Himalayan mountains. She took her first religious vows as a nun on May 24th, 1931. At that time she chose the name Teresa after Teresa de Lisieux, the patron saint of missionaries. She started serving as a teacher at the Loreto convent school in eastern Calcutta. Though Teresa enjoyed teaching at the school, she was much disturbed by the poverty surrounding her in Calcutta. A famine in 1943 brought misery and death to the city; and the outbreak of communal violence in August 1946 plunged the city into despair and horror.

On September 10th, 1946, Teresa experienced what she later described as ‘the call within the cal’ while travelling to loreto convent in Darjeeling from Calcutta for her annual retreat. She was to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them. It was an order. To fail would have been to break the faith. She began serving to the poor in 1948, changing her traditional loreto habit with a simple white cotton sari decorated with a blue border adopted Indian citizenship and stepped out into the slums. Firstly, she started a school in motijhil; soon she started attending to the needs of the destitute and starving. With her wholehearted dedication she served humanity.


2.What are the services Mother Teresa rendered as a Humanitarian?

Mother Teresa in her twelve years old, she decided to become a nun and serve God. She learned English and came to India in 1929. Later on, in 1946 she felt “the call within the call” and decided to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them. She realized that the poor must be aching in body and soul looking for a home, food and health.

Teresa started Missionaries of Charity, its aim is to care of the hungry, the naked, the homeless, the crippled, the blind, the lepers all those people who are aparted, uncared, unloved throughout the society. This charity began with 13 members in Calcutta; today it has more than 4,000 nuns running orphanages. AIDS, Hospices and charity centers worldwide, and caring for refugees, the bling, disabled, aged, alcoholics, the poor and homeless, victims of floods, epidemics and famine.

In 1952, Mother Teresa opened the first Home for the Dying in space made available by the city of Calcutta. With the help of Indian officials she converted an abandoned structure into the Kalighat Home for the Dying, a free hospice for the poor. She renamed it Kalighat, the Home of the Pure Heart (Nirmal Hriday). Those brought to the home received medical attention and were afforded the opportunity to die with dignity, according to the rituals of their faith; Muslims were read the Quran, Hindus received water from the Ganges, and Catholics received the Last Rites.



“A Beautiful Death’. She said ‘is for people who lived like animals to die like angels – loved and wanted’.

Mother Teresa soon opened a home for those suffered from leprosy, and called the hospice Shanti Nagar (city of peace). The Missionaries of Charity further established several leprosy outreach clinics throughout Calcutta, providing medication, bandages and food.

In 1955 she started the Nirmala Shishu Bhavan, the Children’s Home of the Immaculate Heart, as a heaven for orphans and homeless youth. Sooner, Mother Teresa expanded her chartable missionaries throughout India as she received charitable donations. Mother Teresa had become internationally famous as a humanitarian and an advocate for the poor and homeless, due in part to a documentary, and book, Something Beautiful for God by Malcolm Muggeridge. She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 and India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1980 for her humanitarian work. Lay Catholics and non-Catholics were enrolled in the co-workers of Mother Teresa, the sick and suffering co-workers, and the Lay Missionaries of Charity.

Mother Teresa started the Missionaries of Charity Brothers in 1963 and a branch of the Sisters in 1976. For the poor, the homeless, the hopeless, the diseased, the dying, the unloved, the uncared for, the unfed, the unlettered and orphans, she was the mother. Mother Teresa also started the Corpus Christi Movement for Priests in 1981 and the Missionaries of Charitity Fathers in 1984. Mother Teresa’s Missionaries of Charity continuesto expand with an evergrowing number of services. By 2007 it had 450 brothers and 5000 nuns worldwide operating 610 services centres in 130 countries.

No wonder, for all her humanitarian services, Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1979, and India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1980. She was beautified by Pope John Paul II on 19th October 2003, with the title, Blessed Teresa of Calcutta.

3.Write a brief note about last days of Mother Teresa.


After 1983, Teresa had suffered from heart attack, pneumonia, malaria, and failure of the left heart ventricle. She had heart surgery, but it was clear that her health was declining. On March 13th, 1997, she stepped down from the head of Missionaries of Charity and died on September 5th, 1997, just 9 days after her 87th birthday. The process is on to declare her a saint. Meanwhile she was beautified by Pope John Paul II on 19 october 2003.


4.Whose name was Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu?
5.When did Agnes became Teresa?


Mother Teresa’s actual name was Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu. She arrived in India in 1929, and began her work in Darjeeling, near the Himalayan mountains. She took her first religious vows as a nun on May 24th, 1931. At that time she chose the name Teresa.

6.What happened in 1950?

Vatican gave Teresa permission on October 7th, 1950 to start Missionaries of Charity, its aim is to care of the hungry, the naked, the homeless, the crippled, the blind, the lepers all those people who are aparted, uncared, unloved throughout the society. This charity began with 13 members in Calcutta; today it has more than 4,000 nuns running orphanages. AIDS, Hospices and charity centers worldwide, and caring for refugees, the bling, disabled, aged, alcoholics, the poor and homeless, victims of floods, epidemics and famine.

7.When did Teresa consider her birthday to be?

One of the great servants of humanity, Mother Theresa was born on August 26, 1910. She considered August 27, the day she was baptized, to be her “true birthday”.

8.What stories fascinated the young Agnes?
9.What did she do at the age of eighteen?


Agnes was fascinated by stories of the lives of missionaries and their service, and by age 12 was convinced that she should commit herself to a religious life. She left home at age 18 to join the Sisters of Loreto as a missionary. She never again saw her mother or sister.

10.When did Agnes arrive in India and where did she begin her work?

She arrived in India in 1929, and began her work in Darjeeling, near the Himalayan Mountains.

11.What incident disturbed Teresa while she was teaching in Calcutta?

When Teresa was teaching in Calcutta she was increasingly disturbed by the poverty surrounding her in Calcutta. A famine in 1943 brought misery and death to the city; and the outbreak of communal violence in August 1946 plunged the city into despair and horror.

12.What kind of a call did Teresa experience in September 1946?
13.When did she begin her work with the poor and how did it begin?


On September 10th, 1946, Teresa experienced what she later described as ‘the call within the cal’ while travelling to loreto convent in Darjeeling from Calcutta for her annual retreat. She was to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them. It was an order. To fail would have been to break the faith. She began serving to the poor in 1948, changing her traditional loreto habit with a simple white cotton sari decorated with a blue border adopted Indian citizenship and stepped out into the slums. Firstly, she started a school in motijhil; soon she started attending to the needs of the destitute and starving. With her wholehearted dedication she served humanity.

14.What kind of a temptation did Teresa overcome initially?

When Teresa started initially she had no income and had to resort to begging for food and supplies. Teresa experienced doubt, loneliness and the temptation to return to the comfort of convent life during these early months.

15.What did Teresa start the Missionaries of Charity and what was its primary objective?

Mother Teresa started the Missionaries of Charity Brothers in 1963 and a branch of the Sisters in 1976. And the primary objectives to serve the poor, the homeless, the hopeless, the diseased, the dying, the unloved, the uncared for, the unfed, the unlettered and orphans, she was the mother. Mother Teresa also started the Corpus Christi Movement for Priests in 1981 and the Missionaries of Charitity Fathers in 1984. Mother Teresa’s Missionaries of Charity continuesto expand with an evergrowing number of services. By 2007 it had 450 brothers and 5000 nuns worldwide operating 610 services centres in 130 countries.

16.What did Teresa mean by the expression ‘a beautiful death’?

In 1952, Mother Teresa opened the first Home for the Dying in space made available by the city of Calcutta. With the help of Indian officials she converted an abandoned structure into the Kalighat Home for the Dying, a free hospice for the poor. She renamed it Kalighat, the Home of the Pure Heart (Nirmal Hriday). Those brought to the home received medical attention and were afforded the opportunity to die with dignity, according to the rituals of their faith; Muslims were read the Quran, Hindus received water from the Ganges, and Catholics received the Last Rites.
“A Beautiful Death’. She said ‘is for people who lived like animals to die like angels – loved and wanted’

17.What is Shanti Nagar?

Mother Teresa soon opened a home for those suffered from leprosy, and called the hospice Shanti Nagar (city of peace). The Missionaries of Charity further established several leprosy outreach clinics throughout Calcutta, providing medication, bandages and food

18.Who is the author of the book Something Beautiful for God?

Malcolm Muggeridge is the author of the book Something Beautiful for God.

19.In which year did Teresa step down as Head of Missionaries of Charity? Write a brief note about last days of Mother Teresa.

After 1983, Teresa had suffered from heart attack, pneumonia, malaria, and failure of the left heart ventricle. She had heart surgery, but it was clear that her health was declining. On March 13th, 1997, she stepped down from the head of Missionaries of Charity and died on September 5th, 1997, just 9 days after her 87th birthday. The process is on to declare her a saint. Meanwhile she was beautified by Pope John Paul II on 19 october 2003.


20.What proof made the authorities beautify Mother Teresa?

Indian Woman, Monica Besra said that a beam of light emanated from the picture, curing the cancerous tumor. Mother Teresa was formally beautified by Pope John Paul II on October 19, 2003 with the title Blessed Teresa of Calcutta. A second miracle is required for her to proceed to canonization.

21.What was the range of work of Mother Teresa’s Missionaries of Charity at the time of her death in 1997?

Mother Teresa’s Missionaries of Charity continue to expand. While at the time of her death in 1997, it was operating 600 missions in 120 countries, including hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children’s and family counseling programs, orphanages, and schools, by 2007 the Missionaries of Charity numbered approximately 450 brothers and 5,000 nuns worldwide, operating 610 missions, schools and shelters in 123 countries.

21 February 2010

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.
I Have a Dream’ (Lincoln Memorial, Washington C.C., August 28, 1963)

Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Clergyman, Activist and prominent leader in the African – American civil rights movement. His main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the United States, he has become a human rights icon. King’s efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his ‘ I Have a Dream’ speech. His speech on August 28, 1963, from the steps of the Lincoln memorial during the march on Washington for jobs and freedom, was a defining movement of the American civil Rights Movement. There, he raised public consciousness of the civil rights movement and established himself as one of the greatest orators in US history.

1.What according to Martin Luther King is the ‘urgency of the moment’ that needs to be addressed?

Martin Luther King Jr. expresses his anguish that blacks are not equally treated. He delivered thought invoking, inspiriting speech on August 28, 1963. Where he expresses, what is the present urgent need for the blacks and the hopes of the speaker from the government.

A great man (Abraham Lincoln) had proclaimed that blacks are free and can join into the American Army. This official order brought a light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been suffering in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity.

But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. They are still oppressed, segregated in the corners of American society. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on the lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. So, he is expressing their painful racial discrimination.

Martin Luther King says that they have come to their nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republics wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

It is clearly felt today that America has neglected or failed to implement this promissory note in case of citizens of colour are concerned. No justice is shared equally. So they deny this sense of injustice unanimously. And they have come back to remind and demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.

Martin Luther King hopes that the present need is to retain our freedom which was promised long ago.

2.How Martin Luther King narrates that both white and black people freedom is tied up?

It is the time to awaken and open the doors of opportunity to all of God’s children, and to break the shackles of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. If the nation is paying deaf ear it would be experiencing a rude awakening. There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. This revolution would continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

Martin Luther King was instilling hopes, chances, foresight, vision for his people. He says that they must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. Physical violence protest not to be given road. Everything has to be dealt in hand in hand with white brothers. Their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is inseparably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone.

Martin Luther King asked the Negroes always to march ahead and never turn back. They should not be satisfied until they could enter motels and hotels, and move from smaller homes to larger homes like others. They would not be satisfied unless they were allowed to vote for a better future and get injustice and righteous treatment.

Finally, Martin Luther King gave a clarion call to the Negroes to come out of their despair and continue to work with the faith that selfless suffering would result in redemption.

3.Give an elaborate account of Martin Luther King’s dream.

During the historic demonstration of the unprivileged Negroes of America, Martin Luther King announced that he had a dream within the larger American dream. The dream was for a better destiny for the Negroes of America.

The dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: We hold these truths to the self-evident: that all men are created equal. One day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. One day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

The dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character. Where all the little white boys and white girls walk together as sisters and brothers. One day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, the glory of the lord shall be revealed, and all the flesh shall see it together.

This is our hope. This is the faith with which I return to the South. With our hope we destroy the mountain of hopelessness. With our hope we build up relation of brotherhood and work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, they knew that they would be free one day. On that day all the children of God would sing a song of freedom. There would be no difference then between black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics. This meant that all men were free at last.

This was the fond dream of Martin Luther King.


4.What is the background of the speech?

Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Clergyman, Activist and prominent leader in the African – American civil rights movement. His main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the United States, he has become a human rights icon. King’s efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his ‘I Have a Dream’ speech. His speech on August 28, 1963, from the steps of the Lincoln memorial during the march on Washington for jobs and freedom, was a defining movement of the American civil Rights Movement. There, he raised public consciousness of the civil rights movement and established himself as one of the greatest orators in US history.

5.Who is the ‘Great American’ that Martin Luther is referring to in the beginning of his speech?

Abraham Lincoln is the ‘Great American” that Martin Luther King is referring to.

6.What the symbolic meaning of the words like ‘check’, ‘promissory note’, etc, in the speech.

Martin Luther King in his speech he said that Constitution has given ‘check’ here they have come to cash it to reap the fruits of freedom. And he used ‘promissory note’ though the nation has promised to give liberty but it failed. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

7.Explain the meaning of the poetic lines ‘My country,….Let freedom ring’.

The essence of these lines are – let freedom be spread all the corners and every mountainside, snow-capped Rockies of Colorado, curvaceous peaks of California, Stone mountain of Georgia, Mountain of Tennessee, every hill and molehill of Mississippi, every mountainside and all the corners of the nation for this most of the people sacrificed their lives.

8.What was the discrimination meted out to the blacks, according to the speaker?

A great man (Abraham Lincoln) had proclaimed that blacks are free and can join into the American Army. This official order brought a light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been suffering in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity.

But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. They are still oppressed, segregated in the corners of American society. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on the lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. So, he is expressing their painful racial discrimination.

Martin Luther King says that they have come to their nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republics wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

AMARTYA KUMAR SEN

AMARTYA KUMAR SEN


1.When did Amartya form and develop his educational attitude and orientation?

Amartya Kumar Sen was born on November 3rd, 1933 at Shantiniketan, Bengal, to Amita and Ashutosh Sen and was christened ‘Amartya’. Amartya’s formal education began in St. Gregory’s school- Dhaka (now in Bangladesh). However, he was soon moved to Shantiniketan, and it was mainly in Tagore’s school that his educational attitudes were formed. He had decided at a very young age that he would become a teacher and researcher. This thinking remained with him in his growing years. During his young age, he was interested in Sanskrit, Mathematics, and Physics but he settled down in Economics. Amartya Sen was greatly influenced by the cultural diversity in the world, which was well reflected in the curriculum of Shantiniketan.

2.What did Amartya learn from the death of Kader Mia in Dacca?

Amartya had experienced the caste, cultural, economic, racial discrimination in the society. He had been feeling a sense of separation. He had experienced the shift from a United India people to a sectarian society of Hindu, Muslim or Sikh communities. One afternoon in Dhaka, a man named Khader Mia came screaming to Amartya’s house in a profusely bleeding condition Khader Mia had come for searching job. Because he is muslim, some of the gangsters attacked him. Amaratya’s father immediate rushed him to a hospital. Later on, that person passed away. That experience was devastating experience and then he decided that the dangers of narrowly identified identities, such narrow perceptions have to be put an end in communitarian politics. He understood that economic uncertainties forces man to violate other kinds of freedom. When Amaratya Sen arrived at Calcutta to study at Presidency College, he had fairly formed an opinion that cultural identity had been formed and there is an urgent need to form the unity among people instead of sectarian division.

3.How did Calcutta’s Presidency College influence collegian Amartya?
OR
What aspect of the Bengal famine struck Amartya?


Amartaya’s intellectual horizon was radically broadened by the educational excellence of Presidency college. He studied under some of the great teachers and was particularly influenced by Bhabutosh Datta, Tapas Majumdar and Dinesh Bhattachaya.

The student community of Presidency college was also politically active. He ran evening schools for illiterate rural children in the neighbouring villages, which he felt was badly needed for systematic political broadening and social enlargement.

Amartya Sen studied at Presidency college from 1951 to 1953. In 1943 Bengal famine struck and more than three million had died. This inevitable soar experience affected Sen and in this menace most of the landless rural labourers was affected. Later on, Sen had come to know that sectarian inequality is prevailing not only in a particular state but it is deeply rooted across the country.

AMARTYA KUMAR SEN


4.Why did Amartya go to Cambridge in 1953?
OR
How did Amartya utilize his Ph.D thesis before the time of its submission?
OR
Who were the people influenced in advancing his study?


In 1953 Amartya Sen moved from Calcutta to Cambridge to study at Trinity college. Though he already obtained a B.A. from Calcutta University with Economics major and Mathematics minor, he enrolled in Cambridge for another B.A. in Pure Economics, which he quickly finished in 2 years.

At the end of the first year of research, Amartya Sen decided to go on leave for two years and came back to India to do in Ph.D thesis under the supervision of the famous Economics Methodologist A.K.Dasgupta of Banaras Hindu University. In Calcutta, he was also appointed to a chair in Economics at the newly created Jadavpur Univeristy where he was asked to set up a new Department of Economics.

While the Ph.D thesis was maturing with the mere passage of time, Amartya Sen submitted it for a competitive prize fellowship at Trinity College, where he got elected to it and went back to Cambridge. Since this fellowship gave him 4 years of freedom Amartya Sen decided to study philosophy during that period. He chose philosophy just because of broadening of his studies and he found philosophical studies very rewarding on their own. It also gave him the opportunity to work with major philosophers like John Ravels, Isaiah Thomas Scanion, Robert Dworkin, Bernard Williams, Derek Parfit, Robert Nozick and others.

In 1963 Amartya Sen decided to leave Cambridge and went to Delhi as Professor of Economics at the Delhi School of Economics. He taught in Delhi till 1971, a period he considered the most intellectually challenging in his academic life. Along with eminent economist K.N. Ray as the head of the Delhi School, Amartya was able to succeed in making the school a pre-eminent centre of education of Economics and social science in India. During his stint at the Delhi School, Amartya plunged himself full steam into the social choice theory because of the dynamic intellectual atmosphere of the Delhi University.

5.How did he relate the pure theory of social choice to more practical problems?
When Amartya worked at the Delhi School of Economics as a Professor of Economics. There he was succeded in making the school a pre-eminent centre of education in economics and social Sciences in India. During his stint at the Delhi School, Amartya plunged himself full steam into the social choice theory because of the dynamic intellectual atmosphere of the Delhi university. Some choice theory related importantly to a more widespread interest in aggregation in economic assessment and policymaking. In his book Collective Choice and Social Welfare published in 1970 he made an effort to take an overall view of social choice theory. For some time he had to undergo medical examination for cancer. After he recouped, he shifted his interest from pure theory of social choice to more ‘practical’ problems.

The progress of the pure theory of social choice with an expanded information base was very crucial to asses poverty, to evaluate inequality, to clarify the nature of relative deprivation, to develop distribution – adjusted national income measures, to clarify the penalty of unemployment, to analyze violations of personal liberties and basic rights and to characterize gender disparities and women’s relative disadvantage. The results were published in the 1970’s and early 1980’s but were compiled together in two collections of articles, namely, Choice, Welfare, Measurement: Resources, Values and Development, published respectively in 1980 and 1984.


6.What kind of attachment Amartya Sen has for his motherland India?

Amartya Sen always kept close connections with Indian Universities. His attachment to his motherland was so strong that he never stayed away for more than six months at a stretch while being abroad. When the Nobel Prize was award to him, he used part of the prize money to float his Pratichi Trust, which does social and charity work in India and Bangladesh on literacy, basic health care and gender equality. It was a passion he had had since the days when he was involved in running evening schools in surrounding villages when he was studying in Shantiniketan fifty years ago. Sen has had a particular interest in the most impoverished members of a society.
With this we understand that how closely he is associated with our motherland.

7. What was his opinion about Economics?

As Amartya Sen says, “Economics deals with assessment of how well things are going for the members of the society. That is the central thing about welfare economics”. It is the economics that decides evalution judgment, assessment. He had thical dimension to the discussion of vital economic problems.

8.When did Amarty Sen receive the Nobel Prize for Economics and what is he known as in India?

Dr. Amartya Sen has published over twenty books and is the recipient of many awards. He received the Indira Gandhi Gold Medal Award of the Asiatic Society 1994, Nobel Prize for Economics 1998, Eisenhowr Medal, USA and Honarary Companion of Honour, UK for the year 2000.

Known in India as the Mother Teresa of Economics, Amartya sen has spent a lifetime fighting poverty with analysis rather than activism. His ideas have had a global impact. He continues his work and academic teaching as Master, Trinity College, Cambridge, UK.

AMARTYA KUMAR SEN


9.In America in 1985, what was Amartya involved in?

In 1985, Amartya shifted to America. There he got himself involved in analyzing the overall implications of the perspective on welfare economics and political philosophy.


10.How useful was his stint in Delhi during the period 1963 to 1971?
or
11.How did he relate the pure theory of social choice to more practical problems?


When Amartya worked at the Delhi School of Economics as a Professor of Economics. There he was succeded in making the school a pre-eminent centre of education in economics and social Sciences in India. During his stint at the Delhi School, Amartya plunged himself full steam into the social choice theory because of the dynamic intellectual atmosphere of the Delhi university. Some choice theory related importantly to a more widespread interest in aggregation in economic assessment and policymaking. In his book Collective Choice and Social Welfare published in 1970 he made an effort to take an overall view of social choice theory. For some time he had to undergo medical examination for cancer. After he recouped, he shifted his interest from pure theory of social choice to more ‘practical’ problems.

AMARTYA KUMAR SEN

Bubbling Well Road

BUBBLING WELL ROAD
- Rudyard Kipling

Rudyard Kipling (born on 30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936) was a British author and poet. Born in Bombay, in British India. He is best known for his works of fiction The Jungle Book (1894) ,Kim (1901), and has written many short stories. Kipling was one of the most popular writers in English, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.In 1907 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English language writer to receive the prize, and to date he remains its youngest recipient.
1.Narrate the mystery of Bubbling Well Road.

The Chenab River falls into the Indus fifteen miles above the village of Chachuran. Five miles west of Chachuran lies Bubbling Well Road, and the house of the priest of Arti-goth. Five miles of the west of Chachuran, there is a patch of ten to twenty feet high jungle grass in a plot of three to four square miles. In the middle of this plot hides the priest.

The priest is a one-eyed man with the impress of two copper coins burnt between his brows. Some say that in the days of Ranjit Singh, this old man must have been tortured for his mischief. Only British government can control him now.

A pig with foot-long teeth enters the grass patch. The narrator goes into the patch to shoot it for the sake of honour. He takes a gun and is accompanied by his dog, Mr.Wardle. The dog slips in and out of the grass clumps, but the narrator finds it hard to go through the thick grass. He feels as if he is in the heart of Central Africa. There is nothing but grass everywhere, and it is impossible to see two yards in any direction. The grass stems are as hot as boiler tubes. The narrator wishes to leave the pig along. He comes to a six –inch narrow path that runs through thick grass. After fifty yards, he finds his dog missing. He wonders where it has gone. Whatever words he speaks are repeated. When he is silent, he hears an offensive laughter. The heat and laughter upset him. There seems to be no ground in front of him. He drives his gun around but it does not touch the ground. The grunting sound he makes is repeated. When he is silent, there is the sound of laughter.

The narrator moves forward inch by inch and finds a black gap in the ground just before him. It is a very deep well. Very black things are circling round and round in the black water. A little spring of water on one side of the well is creating the sound of laughter. Something is the well turns over on its back and moves round and round with one hand and half an arm held high. The narrator creeps round the well and after walking through the grass for some time, comes to a good path. This path takes him to the priest’s hut. The priest is afraid of the white coloured narrator. Being tired, he goes to sleep on a bedstead outside the priest’s hut. After waking up, he asks the priest to lead him out of the grass into an open ground. When they reach an open ground, the priest runs back into the thick grass. The villagers throw stones at him if they see him. The narrator walks to the village of Arti-goth for a drink.

The narrator learns from the villagers of Arti-goth that the patch of grass is full of devils and ghosts. They are all in the service of the priest. Men, women and children who enter the grass never return. The priest uses their lives for his witchcraft. Before leaving, the narrator tries to burn the grass, but it is too green. He decides to come back in summer with a bundle of newspapers and a match-box and put an end to the mystery of the Bubbling Well Road.

2.What did the writer see when he pushed his way through a thick clump of grass?

When the narrator entered into thick grass he found a very mysterious situations in the thick clump of grass.

The narrator goes into the patch to shoot a pig for the sake of honour. He takes a gun and is accompanied by his dog, Mr.Wardle. The dog slips in and out of the grass clumps, but the narrator finds it hard to go through the thick grass. He feels as if he is in the heart of Central Africa. There is nothing but grass everywhere, and it is impossible to see two yards in any direction. The grass stems are as hot as boiler tubes. The narrator wishes to leave the pig along. He comes to a six –inch narrow path that runs through thick grass. After fifty yards, he finds his dog missing. He wonders where it has gone. Whatever words he speaks are repeated. When he is silent, he hears an offensive laughter. The heat and laughter upset him. There seems to be no ground in front of him. He drives his gun around but it does not touch the ground. The grunting sound he makes is repeated. When he is silent, there is the sound of laughter.

The narrator moves forward inch by inch and finds a black gap in the ground just before him. It is a very deep well. Very black things are circling round and round in the black water. A little spring of water on one side of the well is creating the sound of laughter. Something is the well turns over on its back and moves round and round with one hand and half an arm held high. The narrator creeps round the well and after walking through the grass for some time, comes to a good path.

3.What was the priest’s reaction when the writer suddenly appears at his hut?

The narrator after experiencing very mysterious situations in the thick grass at last he lands into the priest’s hut. The priest is afraid of the white coloured narrator. Because of British people tortured him for his cunning nature.

Being tired, he goes to sleep on a bedstead outside the priest’s hut. After waking up, he asks the priest to lead him out of the grass into an open ground. When they reach an open ground, the priest runs back into the thick grass. The villagers throw stones at him if they see him. The narrator walks to the village of Arti-goth for a drink.


4.What was the secret promise the writer made to himself before he left the village?

The narrator learns from the villagers of Arti-goth that the patch of grass is full of devils and ghosts. They are all in the service of the priest. Men, women and children who enter the grass never return. The priest uses their lives for his witchcraft.
Before leaving, the narrator tries to burn the grass, but it is too green. He decides to come back in summer with a bundle of newspapers and a match-box and put an end to the mystery of the Bubbling Well Road.



5.Why did the writer’s dog go with him into the grass patch?

Mr. Wardle (dog) went with the writer because he believed that he was incapable of existing for an hour without his advice and countenance.

6.Why did the villagers not share their fears about the patch of grass with the writer before he set out to hunt wild boar?

Because of the villagers wanted the writer to hunt wild boar.

8 February 2010

How to Improve Spoken skills

How to Improve one's Oral/Spoken Skills

Why do we require to learn spoken English?

Most people, who have done their schooling from the regional media background/their mother tongue, do not have the basic knowledge in English. They require English when they are at the peak of their career.
For them learning English as a spoken language is extremely essential. Some students go aboard for higher education / for job after completing their college education. They need to learn the language very well. But more than it is seen that they are not so well versed in English. Therefore they require learning English by practicing regularly.


How to improve the spoken English skills?


Speak in English: The best way to improve the spoken English skill is to talk in English with others. This will enhance your English language skills. When you can talk easily with another person in English, then you know that you are well conversant in the language.

Watch English films: Another better way to learn the language is to see a lot of English movies. When you see the characters speaking in front of you then you tend to learn the language better. The characters speak with different moods and therefore people who listen intently can learn the language better.

Observe the mouth movements of those who speak English well and try to imitate them: When you are watching television, observe the mouth movements of the speakers. Repeat what they are saying, while imitating the intonation and rhythm of their speech.

Listen to the 'music' of English: Do not use the 'music' of your native language when you speak English. Each language has its own way of 'singing'.

Use the dictionary: Try and familiarise yourself with the phonetic symbols of your dictionary. Look up the correct pronunciation of words that are hard for you to say.

Make a list of frequently used words that you find difficult to pronounce and ask someone who speaks the language well to pronounce them for you: Record these words listen to them and practice saying them. Listen and read at the same time.

Read aloud in English for 15-20 minutes every day: Research has shown it takes about three months of daily practice to develop strong mouth muscles for speaking a new language.
Focus on removing the mother tongue influence and the 'Indianisms' that creep into your English conversations.

~ Watch the English news on television channels like Star World, CNN, BBC and English movies on Sony pix, Star Movies and HBO.

~ Listen to and sing English songs.


Books for improving one's grammar and oral skills



•Essential English Grammar by Murphy (Cambridge).
•Intermediate English Grammar by Murphy (Cambridge).
•Advanced English Grammar by Murphy (Cambridge).

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa

7 February 2010

The Cuddalore Experience

THE CUDDALORE EXPERIENCE
- Anu George


1. Immediately after the tsunami struck Cuddalore, what were some of the first tasks the administration had to do?

Cuddalore, in Tamil Nadu, has always been prone to natural disasters of one kind or the other. The shocking, spine jerking, tsunami experience of 26th of December 2004 was like no other. The extent or immensity of loss, the suddenness with which it approached, without prediction and lack of preparedness of people has made an unbelievable amount of destruction. The disaster was much different from any others for the intense havoc it damaged: the spread was small but the damage huge.
The tsunami left 618 dead in Cuddalore, loss of animals was put to 29 lakh. A vast area of 517.7 hectares of land was rendered saline and property worth nearly 300 crore was destroyed. The terrible tragedy scarred the lives of over 97,000 people, and thousands were rendered homeless in a matter of minutes.
Anu George is an IAS officer, incharge of the district of the relief and rehabilitation operations.

Immediate rescue and relief Operations:


The first and foremost task in disaster management in Cuddalore was that of rescue and relief operation. Tragedy had happened in immensely large proportion, the task is very high to accommodate and provide rescue and relief operation. Hospitals had to be made ready to attend to the thousands being brought in, dead or alive. First aid to the injured, care for the seriously affected and consolation to the bereaved had to be given. It was very troublesome and painful task of disposing the dead bodies, mass burial was the only way out and it took a lot of persuasion and effort on the part of our field officials to get the task done by the morning of 27th December. Many people had come to search their lost relatives or friends. All the bodies were photographed individually before the burial for future identification purposes. The burial was an important task for two reasons: 1. For controlling the outbreak of diseases, 2. For ensuring faster and smoother relief operations.
Public information centres, and public announcement system had facilitated to carve out the confusion at the hospitals. The next important job was to provide food and water for nearly 24,000 people who had fled from their villages in the coastal areas to the interior. Philanthropist and volunteers had taken a great initiative to meet the emergency. Organizations had pooled up the resources and provided food and water.

Relief Centres

The villagers in coastal regions were scared and moved to the interiors of the district in panic. Most of the relief camps that were opened up almost immediately were housed in the wedding halls of the district. Around thirty eight centres were set up for the refugees. The next task in hand was to provide food and water to the refugees till the time that these camps lasted. This was a massive exercise in coordination between the authorities and the voluntary sector. They devised a tracking system whereby the officials’ incharge at each centre would report to the control room about the arrangements that were in place for the next meal. Sanitary workers were appointed to clean the places on a daily basis. Their work was constantly monitored.
Medical camps were also set up. The arrangement was such that every camp had atleast one visit from a team of doctors every day. Wherever there was more than one camp within a short distance, the medical camp functioned all day.
The cooked food brought in by the volunteer was monitored as a precautionary measure. This was necessary because in a few places, the food, which was brought in from far flung areas, had got spoilt during transportation due to the heat.
With the help of a few agencies, we were able to put up sintex tanks in all the relief centres, thus ensuring a steady supply of water. Additional responsibility was laid those who had leadership qualities that no problem was unattended without delay.

Restoration of Civic Amenities:

The water from all the sources was tested with the assistance from voluntary agencies and was found potable in all but one source. Here the tsunami had rendered the drinking water sources saline. With the support of NGOs, three desalination plants based on reverse osmosis were set up in this area. The help from NGOs kept pouring in and we were able to get commitments for maintenance of the desalination units also, which was very important.

Civic amenities, power supply, water and bore wells were provided. Intensive police patrolling had done to prevent thefts and any untoward happenings.

Communications:

Control rooms were established in the three worst affected areas to coordinate the efforts of the field staff and to monitor the relief operations. To some extent the HAM radio operators helped them in this process. And using mobile phones by the top officials were of great help to meet the demands.

Mass Cleaning:

It was important to clean up the village to bring a normal state. Entire area was filled with dead bodies and carcasses. It was also a vital move in the control of epidemics. This was done in a massive scale by local NSS, NYK and army personnel.
The World Health Organisation warned that more people would die of epidemics rather than of the tsunami. They had started a massive exercise to disinfect the relief centres and the villages, using bleaching power, line and phenyl, which were made available in huge quantities.

Community Kitchens:

Organising community kitchens to feed the thousands of displaced people was an exercise in coordination. It needed huge quantity of vegetables, fuel and other provisions at short notices. Donors’ money was used for this purpose and 7,085 people were fed in the 23 community kitchens across the district for over a month. Officers’ incharge got the daily report for next meal arrangements to ensure food supply was never disrupted.


Handling Relief Materials:


From the second day onwards, relief materials started pouring in from all directions. For good use of relief material, they followed a smooth system, computerized entry with the help of two volunteers. Relief materials like medicine, cloths, groceries etc were sent to the much needed areas.
The donors who donated through administration were given an official acknowledgement for the materials. This addressed the issue of accountability. There were others who wanted to distribute directly to the villagers. It was not a good option but required arrangements were made to facilitate the distribution. There was a perfect system to ease the distribution process.

Health:


The department of health rendered yeoman’s service in this crisis. Twenty-three teams comprising both government and private doctors were mobilized for medical camps.
Initially the camps were set up in the relief centres, but they were later shifted to the villages. They had organized counseling for the mentally traumatized. Initially, Red Cross Society’s volunteers helped to identify the people who were in need of counseling. To ensure some kind of continuity in the process, people were trained to carry the program forward. And temporary camp was set up in one of the villagers for this purpose.

Agriculture:

Government had enhanced compensation package for the farmers. The farmers were told the various scientific institutions for eco-friendly technologies to facilitate faster reclamation. This was important as in many places the farmers had already watered the land in the hope of planting the next crop, without being aware of the consequence of their actions.

Children:

Authorities, voluntaries, organizations had taken intimate care to bring back the traumatized children. It was felt that play therapy would be the best healer. This made a great impact on the children.
The government home opened for the tsunami orphans also received special attention. Children were provided with all the basic amenities’ comforts with the help of various donors. The home was opened bearing in mind the special needs, including the psychosocial well being, of the tsunami affected children. Schools and colleges were these children could go to were identified in the fast possible manner; and students were provided with books and bags as well. Immediate steps were also undertaken to reopen schools as early as possible.


Shelter:

Temporary shelters had to be put up because it is inevitable to stay long at relief centres. It was also necessary to bring village into normalcy. A large number of temporary shelters were put up with the help of the voluntary bodies and the Rural Development Department. Based on the good feedback the sheltering work was continuously extended. A lot of thrust was placed on the flooring and the controlling the heat. The sanitation needs of the rehabilitation were met with the help of voluntary agencies.

Conclusion:

Disasters both natural and manmade expose the most vulnerable sections of society to grave danger. These disasters widen the poverty. The poor people are suffered atmost. It takes many years to recuperate and to bring city to normalcy. It was fortunate that many philanthropist gave their support. But, atlast are we limiting our support to such disasters.

THE CUDDALORE EXPERIENCE

2.Provide a short note on the account of damage caused by floods and tsunami to Cuddalore in 2004.

Cuddalore, in Tamil Nadu, has always been prone to natural disasters of one kind or the other. The shocking, spine jerking, tsunami experience of 26th of December 2004 was like no other. The extent or immensity of loss, the suddenness with which it approached, without prediction and lack of preparedness of people has made an unbelievable amount of destruction. The disaster was much different from any others for the intense havoc it damaged: the spread was small but the damage huge.
The tsunami left 618 dead in Cuddalore, loss of animals was put to 29 lakh. A vast area of 517.7 hectares of land was rendered saline and property worth nearly 300 crore was destroyed. The terrible tragedy scarred the lives of over 97,000 people, and thousands were rendered homeless in a matter of minutes. The area near the coast was reduced to rubble. Fifty one habitations were badly damaged by the sea waves. A large number of animals were treated for various illnesses. A large number of people including children were traumatized.

THE CUDDALORE EXPERIENCE

3.What steps did the administration take to ensure that potable water was available?

Restoration of Civic Amenities:

The administration had taken very stringent measure to provide potable water. The water from all the sources was tested with the assistance from voluntary agencies and was found potable in all but one source. Here the tsunami had rendered the drinking water sources saline. With the support of NGOs, three desalination plants based on reverse osmosis were set up in this area. The help from NGOs kept pouring in and we were able to get commitments for maintenance of the desalination units also, which was very important.

Civic amenities, power supply, water and bore wells were provided. Intensive police patrolling had done to prevent thefts and any untoward happenings.

THE CUDDALORE EXPERIENCE

4.What were the means used to establish contact between the control rooms and the field staff?
Communications:
Communication is one of the important areas to take up the relief operations very fast. So that nothing can be delayed and everything has to reach to all the victims. For that control rooms were established in the three worst affected areas to coordinate the efforts of the field staff and to monitor the relief operations. To some extent the HAM radio operators helped them in this process. And using mobile phones by the top officials were of great help to meet the demands. All the officials had taken a very provocative action in this regard. Meeting the demand was top priority.

THE CUDDALORE EXPERIENCE

5.How was the distribution of clothes and medicines that poured in for the tsunami victims handled?
Handling Relief Materials:
Handling Relief Materials was very important. And these things are to be management in a best possible way. Administration had started a separate system for smooth distribution of clothes and medicines. From the second day onwards, relief materials started pouring in from all directions. For good use of relief material, they followed a smooth system, computerized entry with the help of two volunteers. Relief materials like medicine, cloths, groceries etc were sent to the much needed areas.
The donors who donated through administration were given an official acknowledgement for the materials. This addressed the issue of accountability. There were others who wanted to distribute directly to the villagers. It was not a good option but required arrangements were made to facilitate the distribution. There was a perfect system to ease the distribution process.

THE CUDDALORE EXPERIENCE
6.What was some of the work done by the medical teams formed as part of the disaster management efforts in Cuddalore?
Health:
The department of health rendered yeoman’s service in this crisis. Twenty-three teams comprising both government and private doctors were mobilized for medical camps. Initially the camps were set up in the relief centres, but they were later shifted to the villages. They had organized counseling for the mentally traumatized. Initially, Red Cross Society’s volunteers helped to identify the people who were in need of counseling. To ensure some kind of continuity in the process, people were trained to carry the program forward. And temporary camp was set up in one of the villagers for this purpose.

The district administration of Cuddalore set up thirty-eight centres for refugees. Food and water were supplied regularly. Snitary workers were appointed to clean the places on a daily basis. Medical camps were also set up. Teams of doctors visited the camps every day. The cooked food was monitored as a precautionary measure. Villages were cleaned up to control epidemics. Dead bodies of human beings and animals were disposed of. To disinfect relief centres and ravaged villages, bleaching powder, lime and phenyl were used. Twenty three teams of doctors did wonderful service. They treated 80,117 people with 437 people as in-patients. The doctors also gave 9373 doses of measles and polio vaccine. They further mobilized 17,000 typhoid vaccines. The medical teams organized counseling for the mentally traumatized people including children. Play therapy sessions were specially held for children. Homes were opened for tsunami orphans to provide them psychosocial well-being.

THE CUDDALORE EXPERIENCE

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