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28 November 2008

APJ Abdul Kalam

Chapters 5 – 8

1. Why was the Nandi project abandoned?

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born in 1931 to a little educated family of boat owners in Rameswaram. ‘Wings of Fire’ is a powerful autobiography of courage and belief, as much an individual journey as the saga of India’s search for scientific and technological self-sufficiently. He believed in, “We are born with a divine fire in us. Our efforts should be to give wings to this fire.” The fire to achieve and the wings of determination helped him to climb the ladder of success.

Abdul Kalam had been previously awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1981, the Padma Vibhushan (country’s second highest civilian award) in 1990, and a recipient of India’s highest Civilian Awad, the Bharat Ratna, in 1997. He served as principal scientific adviser to the Government of India from 1999 to 2001. He served the nation as President of India (first citizen of India) from 2002 to 2007. He dreamt of transforming India a developed nation by 2020. Presently, he has been working as a Professor at Anna University, Chennai since 2007.

It was his first experience living in an Industrial Town, Kanpur was heavily populated. It was total contrast to Rameswaram. Kalm felt that a kind of loneliness prevailed in the city. Many people had come to the city in search of jobs.

On his return to Delhi, he was informed that a new type of target had been taken up at DTD & P (Air) and that he had been included in the design team. He completed this task with the other team members. Then, he undertook a preliminary design study on human centrifuge. Later he carried out the design and development of a vertical take-off and landing platform.

Three years passed, the Aeronautical Development establishment was established in Bangalore and Abdul Kalam was posted to the new establishment. Here a project team was formed to design and develop an indigenous hovercraft prototype, a ground equip machine. Kalam was to lead the team with four persons to assist him. He was given a time limit of three years to launch the engineering model.

The project was beyond their capabilities and none of them were experienced in that field. They tried to collect all information about the hovercrafts but there was not much material found on hovercraft nor could they find any person who had the knowledge about the hovercraft.

One day, finally, they decided to go ahead with the limited information they had about hovercraft. After spending a few months on the drawing board, they moved on to actual model, part by part, stage by stage, things started moving. Kalam was impressed by this endeavor to produce a wingless, light, swift machine. He feared that with a background such as his-a person who has come from a small town, middle class would shrink from responsibilities and wait for fate or destiny to take its course.

V.K. Menon was the then Defence Minister of India. He was very much interested in the progess of their samall project. He saw it as a stepping stone to India producing Defence equipment within the country. His confidence was a boost to them.

Many of his senior colleagues did not accept Kalam’s inventory pursuit. When the project was one year old, the Defence Minister came to ADE for his routine visits. Kalam escorted him to their assembly shop. The model was culmination of one year’s untiring effort to develop a practical hovercraft for battlefield application. The minister asked a lot of questions.

The hovercraft was christened Nandi. The hovercraft was beyond their expectations. The Defence Minister V.K. Krishna Menon took a ride in Nandi, with Kalam. The Minister asked Kalam to be the pilot.

It was a smooth ride and the Minister was very appreciative. He told Kalam that they have solved the basic problems involved in developing hovercraft. He asked him to develop a more powerful prime mover.

They completed the project ahead of schedule and created a successful working hovercraft. Dr. O.P. Mediratta, Director of ADE, was pleased with his work. But, unfortunately V.K.K. Menon was out of office and could not take his promised second ride. However, the project was mired in controversy and was finally shelved.


2. What was special about the author’s interview at INCOSPAR?


Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born in 1931 to a little educated family of boat owners in Rameswaram. ‘Wings of Fire’ is a powerful autobiography of courage and belief, as much an individual journey as the saga of India’s search for scientific and technological self-sufficiently. He believed in, “We are born with a divine fire in us. Our efforts should be to give wings to this fire.” The fire to achieve and the wings of determination helped him to climb the ladder of success.

Abdul Kalam had been previously awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1981, the Padma Vibhushan (country’s second highest civilian award) in 1990, and a recipient of India’s highest Civilian Awad, the Bharat Ratna, in 1997. He served as principal scientific adviser to the Government of India from 1999 to 2001. He served the nation as President of India (first citizen of India) from 2002 to 2007. He dreamt of transforming India a developed nation by 2020. Presently, he has been working as a Professor at Anna University, Chennai since 2007.
.

Dr. Mediratta brought Prof. MGK Menon to hovercraft- a tall, handsome, bearded man. He asked me several questions about the machine. Prof. MGK Menon enquired me ‘Can you give me a ride in the machine?’.

Prof. MGK Menon was the director of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR). Kalam received the call from the Indian Committee for Space Research (INCOSPER) to attend interview for the post of a rocket engineer.
Kalam went to Bombay to attend the interview, he was relaxed because he did not attempt for the interview.

Kalam was interviewed by Prof. Vikram Sarabhai along with Prof. Memon and Mr. Saraf. They were warmth and friendly. There were none of them show the arrogance or the patronizing attitude towards Kalam.

Prof. Sarabhai’s questions did not probe Kalam’s Knowledge or skills. Interviewers were looking for the possibilities within Kalam. The entire interview seemed to Kalam a total moment of truth.
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Kalam was asked stay back for a couple of days. The next day they absorbed Kalam as a rocket engineer at INCOSPAR. It was a breakthrough for a young man could only have dreamed of.

3. “Bread baked without love is a bitter bread, that feeds but half a man’s hunger”. How does the author use the quote in the context of work?

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born in 1931 to a little educated family of boat owners in Rameswaram. ‘Wings of Fire’ is a powerful autobiography of courage and belief, as much an individual journey as the saga of India’s search for scientific and technological self-sufficiently. He believed in, “We are born with a divine fire in us. Our efforts should be to give wings to this fire.” The fire to achieve and the wings of determination helped him to climb the ladder of success.

Abdul Kalam awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1981, the Padma Vibhushan (country’s second highest civilian award) in 1990, and a recipient of India’s highest Civilian Awad, the Bharat Ratna, in 1997. He served as principal scientific adviser to the Government of India from 1999 to 2001. He served the nation as President of India (first citizen of India) from 2002 to 2007. He dreamt of transforming India a developed nation by 2020. Presently, he has been working as a Professor at Anna University, Chennai since 2007.

The Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launch Station was further developed in active collaboration with France, the USA and USSR. It was to be the centre of India’s integral national space programme.

The real journey however began with the Rohini Sounding Rocket (RSR) programme. This programme was responsible for the development and fabrication of sounding rockets and their associated on-board systems for scientific investigations in India. Under the RSR programme, a family of operational sounding rocket was developed. These rockets had wide ranging capabilities and several hundred such rockets have been launched for various scientific and technological studies.

The development of these rockets made India capable of producing fully indigenous sounding rockets. This could be seen as the revival of 18th century vision of Tippu Sultan.

When Tippu Sultan was killed, the British forces captured more than 700 rockets and the subsystem of 900 rockets. These rockets were taken to England and were subjected to reverse engineering.

With the death of Tippu Sultan, Indian rocketry came to a standstill.

Rocketry was reborn in India, thanks to the technological vision of our late Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Prof. Vikram Sarabhai. Their vision was very clear if India was to play a meaningful role in the community of nation, which must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies.

Prof. Sarabhai was keen on trying novel ideas and liked to rope in young people to do this. He had the wisdom to judge people. Abdul Kalam felt that he was an innovator.

INCOSPAR was filled young and inexperienced but energetic and enthusiastic persons, who had been given the task of shaping the Indian spirit of self-reliance in Science and Technology. This was an example of leadership by trust.

Prof. Sarabhai assigned to Kalam the task of providing interface support to payload scientists. Almost all physical laboratories in India were involved in the sounding rocket programme each having its own mission, its own objective and its own payload. It was his presence that would fill them with enthusiasm. They wanted to show something new to Prof. Sarabhai.

Prof. Sarabhai believed in an open and free exchange of views. He felt that without collective understanding of a problem, effective leadership was impossible in a team. Prof. Sarabhai took a series of decisions that were to become the life mission of many scientists in India. He wanted to create new frontiers in the field of science and technology in India. He made own payload. This was a tedious task. Abdul Kalam had to X-ray payloads to look at stars, payloads to analyse the gas composition of the upper atmospheric payloads to explore the layers of atmosphere. He had to interact with payload scientists from India and abroad.

As Khalil Gibran says “Bread baked without love is a bitter bread, that feeds but half a man’s hunger”. Kalam felt that those work without their hearts achieve a hallow, half-hearted success that only breeds bitterness within. If you are in any profession but wish you were in some other profession then your success will be limited. It is extremely important to become emotionally involved with one’s work, such that any obstruction to the success of that work fills one with grief.

Abdul Kalam was very much impressed by Prof. Oda’s work. Prof. Oda was an X-ray payload scientist from the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Sciences, Japan. The X-ray payloads he brought were to be engineered by his team to fit into the nose cone of the Rohini.

One day, Abdul Kalam was working on the integration of Prof. Oda’s payload with his timer devices, Prof. Oda insisted on using his timer devices. Kalam thought it look flimsy but Prof. Oda stuck to his decision and the timer devices were replaced.

The rocket took off elegantly, but reported mission failure because of timer malfunction. Prof. Oda was so upset that tears filled in his eyes.

Kalam was involved with building subsystems like payloads housing and Jettisonable nose cones. Working with the nose cones Abdul Kalam was led into the field of composite materials.

Two Indian rockets were born at Thumba. They were Rohini and Menaka. This was major achievement for Indians. This could be achieved because of the atmosphere of trust created by Prof. Sarabhai at INCOSPAR.

Rohini-75 rocket was lanunched from TERLS on 20th November 1967.

4. What programme did Professor Vikram Sarabhai visualize almost simultaneously with the SLV project?
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born in 1931 to a little educated family of boat owners in Rameswaram. ‘Wings of Fire’ is a powerful autobiography of courage and belief, as much an individual journey as the saga of India’s search for scientific and technological self-sufficiently. He believed in, “We are born with a divine fire in us. Our efforts should be to give wings to this fire.” The fire to achieve and the wings of determination helped him to climb the ladder of success.

Abdul Kalam awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1981, the Padma Vibhushan (country’s second highest civilian award) in 1990, and a recipient of India’s highest Civilian Awad, the Bharat Ratna, in 1997. He served as principal scientific adviser to the Government of India from 1999 to 2001. He served the nation as President of India (first citizen of India) from 2002 to 2007. He dreamt of transforming India a developed nation by 2020. Presently, he has been working as a Professor at Anna University, Chennai since 2007.

Rocketry was reborn in India, thanks to the technological vision of our late Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Prof. Vikram Sarabhai. Their vision was very clear if India was to play a meaningful role in the community of nation, which must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies.

Prof. Sarabhai was keen on trying novel ideas and liked to rope in young people to do this. He had the wisdom to judge people. Abdul Kalam felt that he was an innovator.

INCOSPAR was filled young and inexperienced but energetic and enthusiastic persons, who had been given the task of shaping the Indian spirit of self-reliance in Science and Technology. This was an example of leadership by trust.

Prof. Sarabhai had developed trust in them. Prof. Sarabhai was very optimistic. If he goes to Thumba, would electrify the people with unceasing activity. People would work around the clock in their enthusiasm to show Prof. Sarabhai something new, something that had not been done before in our country.

Prof. Sarabhai took a series of decisions that were to become the life-mission of many scientists and he wanted to create new frontiers in the field of science and technology in India. After the successful launch of Nike-Apache he shared his dream with his team members of an Indian satellite launch vehicle (SLV). His decision to make our own SLVs and our own satellites too simultaneously was remarkable one.

Prof. Sarabhai discussed about the matter threadbare with scientists who are working in various organizations and at different locations.

Prof. Sarabhai assigned to Kalam the task of providing interface support to payload scientists. Almost all physical laboratories in India were involved in the sounding rocket programme each having its own mission, its own objective and its own payload. It was his presence that would fill them with enthusiasm. They wanted to show something new to Prof. Sarabhai.



5. Describe the situation at INCOSPER in the early sixties.

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born in 1931 to a little educated family of boat owners in Rameswaram. ‘Wings of Fire’ is a powerful autobiography of courage and belief, as much an individual journey as the saga of India’s search for scientific and technological self-sufficiently. He believed in, “We are born with a divine fire in us. Our efforts should be to give wings to this fire.” The fire to achieve and the wings of determination helped him to climb the ladder of success.

Abdul Kalam awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1981, the Padma Vibhushan (country’s second highest civilian award) in 1990, and a recipient of India’s highest Civilian Awad, the Bharat Ratna, in 1997. He served as principal scientific adviser to the Government of India from 1999 to 2001. He served the nation as President of India (first citizen of India) from 2002 to 2007. He dreamt of transforming India a developed nation by 2020. Presently, he has been working as a Professor at Anna University, Chennai since 2007.

Prof. Sarabhai was keen on trying novel ideas and liked to rope in young people to do this. He had the wisdom to judge people. Abdul Kalam felt that he was an innovator.

In early sixties, the situation at INCOSPAR was filled young and inexperienced but energetic and enthusiastic persons, who had been given the task of shaping the Indian spirit of self-reliance in Science and Technology. This was an example of leadership by trust.

Prof. Sarabhai had developed trust in them. Prof. Sarabhai was very optimistic. If he goes to Thumba, would electrify the people with unceasing activity. People would work around the clock in their enthusiasm to show Prof. Sarabhai something new, something that had not been done before in our country.
Prof. Sarabhai believed in an open and free exchange of views. He felt that without collective understanding of a problem, effective leadership was impossible in a team. He says ‘My job is to make decisions; but it is equally important to see that these decisions are accepted by the team members’.

Prof. Sarabhai took a series of decisions that were to become the life-mission of many scientists and he wanted to create new frontiers in the field of science and technology in India. After the successful launch of Nike-Apache he shared his dream with his team members of an Indian satellite launch vehicle (SLV). His decision to make our own SLVs and our own satellites too simultaneously was remarkable one.

26 November 2008

Learning English - Informationa Technology

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


A Very Short History of Computer Ethics


Terrell Ward Bynum is Professor of Philosophy at Southern Connecticut State University. He has published articles and books, created conferences and workshops, given speeches and addresses. And also he developed an internationally influential web site. This article had adapted from 'From the Internet' published in the summer 2000 issue of the American Philosophical Association's Newsletter on philosophy and computing.

Norbert Wiener , a professor in the MIT was founded Computer ethics as field of study in the early 1940. At the same time he was helping to develop an anti-aircraft cannon capable of shooting down fast warplanes. Wiener created a new branch of science called cybernetics. Cybernetics is the science of information feedback systems.

The cannon he was helping to develop had two parts. One part would track the enemy warplane and ‘talk’ to the other part. This is an Engineering challenge. At that time digital computers were being created.

Norbert Wiener expressed his concern over this combination of moral consequences in his book, Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and machine, published in 1948. He thought that this combination of cybernetics and digital computer had the potential for good and for evil.

Norbert Wiener published his great book, The Human Use of Human Beings in 1950, in which he laid down a complete computer ethics foundation. This ethics foundation is now a powerful basis for further research and analysis in this field. Wiener made it clear that, in his opinion, the integration of computer technology into society would constitute its remarking - the second industrial revolution – destined to affect every major aspect of life. The computer revolution would be a multi-faceted, ongoing process that would take decades of effort and would radically change everything. Such a vast undertaking would necessarily include a wide diversity of tasks and challenges for workers, governments, professional organizations, sociologists, psychologists and philosophers to deal with.

Computer ethics is a complex and important new area of applied ethics, which Wiener founded in the 1940s. It was remained undeveloped and unexplored until the mid 1960s. By then the good and bad consequences of computer technology became manifest everywhere. However, credit goes to Norbert Wiener for conceiving the applied ethics. These ethics would soon be taken up by other scientists and turned into a universal code of conduct.

Also in the mid 1960s, computer-enabled invasions of privacy by ‘big-brother’ government agencies became a public worry and led to books, articles, government studies, and proposed privacy legislation.

By the mid 1970s, new privacy laws and computer crime laws had been enacted in America and in Europe. Organizations of computer professionals were adopting codes of conduct for their members. At the same time, MIT computer scientist Joseph Weizenbaum created a computer program called ELIZA intended to crudely stimulate a Rogerian Psychotherapist engaged in an initial interview with a patient. Weizenbaum wrote the classic book Computer Power and Human Reason (1976), in computer ethics concerned by the ethical implications.

Walter Maner had dubbed 'computer ethics' . Maner defined computer ethics as the branch of applied ethics, which studies ethical problems 'aggravated, transformed or created by computer technology'. He also offered guidelines for dealing with the subject in the classroom.

Terrell Ward Bynum developed curriculum materials and a university course 1979. In the 1980s he gave speeches and conducted workshops at a variety of conferences across America. In 1983 as editor of the journal ‘metaphilosophy’, he launched as essay competition to generate interest in computer ethics and to create a special issue of the journal. Entitled ‘Computer and Ethics’, it was published in 1985 and its lead article which won the essay competition, was James Moor’s essay, ‘What is Computer Ethics?’

The year 1985 was a watershed year for computer ethics. Deborah Johnson published her text book, Computer Ethics, in which she defines computer ethics as a field in which computers deal with new versions of standard moral problems and dilemmas. She thinks that computers did not create new ethical problems, but only gave a new twist to already familiar issues such as ownership, power, privacy and responsibility.

On the other hand, in her 1995 ETHICOMP paper, Krystyna Gorniak predicted that computer ethics, which will evolve into a system of global ethics applicable in every culture on earth. Just as the major ethical theories of Bentham and Kant were developed in response to the printing press revolution, so new ethical theory is likely to emerge from computer ethics in response to the computer revolution. The newly emerging field of information ethics, therefore, is much more important than even its founders and advocates believe.

The very nature of the computer revolution indicates that the ethic of the future will have a global character. It will be global in a spatial sense, since it will encompass the entire globe. It will also be global in the sense that is will address the totality of human actions and relations. Computers do not know borders. Computer networks have a truly global character. Hence, when we are talking about computer ethics, we are talking about the emerging global ethic.

But Johnson’s hypothesis is the opposite of Krystyna’s. The current ethical theories and principles, according to Johnson, will remain the source of ethical thinking and analysis, and as such, the computer revolution will not lead to a revolution is ethics.

Simply, Krystyna’s point of view is that the ethically revolutionary computer technology will make human beings re-examine the foundations of ethics and the very definition of human life. But Johnson’s stand is that fundamental ethical theories will remain unaffected with no change in the ethical questions. This would make applied computer ethics disappear.

Comprehension

1. What do you understand by 'cybernetics'?

Cybernetics is science of information feedback systems.

2. Why does the computer have 'another social potentiality of unheard-of importance for good and for evil?

The computer has revolutionised every aspect of our lives, given us many advantages. However, it also has the potential for evil such as computer-aided crimes, scope for invasions of privacy, etc.


3. How did Wiener think of computer technology as remaking society?

He believed that the integration of computer technology would be a second industrial revolution that would affect every major aspect of life. It would spread over a long period of time and would include new tasks and challenges.


4. How did the term 'computer ethics' catch on and why?

'Computer ethics' coined by Walter Maner in 1976. He caught on because the term suited the study of computer-related ethical issues in which there had been increasing interest since 1940s. Inspire by maner's work, Bynum developed teaching materials, conducted workshops and also launched an essay competition, the winner of which was James Moor's now-classic essay on computer ethics.

5. How is the nature of the computer revolution global and how does it affect the global ethic?

Computer revolution is global in the sense that it is spread across the world and also in that it affects all aspects of our lives including our actions and relations. All the ethical problems created, aggravated and transformed by computer technology will hence be global in nature.

6. What is your view of the future of computer ethics as derived from this lesson?

It will continue to have relevance in a world making increasing use of computer technology. It will help study and deal with ethical problems associated with computers.

15 November 2008

How to master vocabulary

How to Master Vocabulary?

The biggest problem is that we feel comfortable reviewing word lists for a few days. That gives us a feeling that "yes, I do understand these words and do remember these words".

That is the good part.

The difficulty becomes apparent when we try to recall the words a few days or a few weeks later. Most people forget most of the words by then.

That is the biggest problem in building word power.
What You Need to Memorize Vocabulary?

A method that helps you to be systematic and regular because memorizing vocabulary is hard.

What it means is: Something that helps you to be regular to revise words daily and give you the words needed so you can cover all the words required for your exam or communication needs.

Requirements of Effective Vocabulary System

TWO requirements of any solution to be effective are:
System to offer you new words daily so all the needed words are covered once and then repeatedly
Offer you the words daily without break in systematic regular way, so you can have your momentum going and make progress

Here are some options that you can try:

Using word lists - you need to remember to look up such lists a few times daily and you need to create a system to repeat the word lists

Using flash cards - same as word lists
Computer programs - good programs offer you a system that can let you revise daily depending on how much time you want to spend (www.activcab.com).

Audio programs - good (examples: www.executive-vocabulary.com and www.verbaladvantage.com )

For vocabulary-building

11 November 2008

Goal Setting

Goal Setting

A Practical Technique to Set Your Goals

Interview Yourself

One way to set your goal is to ask yourself the following questions.

Consider your education, interest, talents applicable in the present. Socio-economic condition in your city/country.


1. What do you want to be in your life? (What is your ambition?)

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2. How would you like to pass your future?

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3. Which things do you like the most?

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4. Which things do you dislike?

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5. What is the plan of your next year and next five years?

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Incase you are appearing in competitive examinations such as IES or MS at abroad or engineering jobs or any of the other competitive examinations of Public Service Commission or state government jobs, your goal is already set.

In my opinion you should not take more than 3 chances of any examination. If you are not selected , you should increase your goal or lower your goals. The Himalaya will not fall on you. You are more important than anything else. Why are you limited in your choice?

If you are settled for a job, your goal is also set.

8 November 2008

Learning English - Astronomy

ASTRONOMY

Our Picture of Universe

Stephen William Hawking is a British theoretical physicist. Hawking is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, and a Fellow of Gonville and Caius college, Cambridge. He is known for his contribution to the fields of Cosmology and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black hole, and his popular works in which he discusses his own theories and Cosmology in general. These include the runaway popular science bestseller A Brief History of Time, which stayed on the British Sunday Times bestseller first for a record breaking 237 weeks. Our Picture of Universe has taken from his A Brief History of Time.

Old Belief

A quiet long time ago we believed that the world is really a flat plate supported on the back of a giant tortoise standing on the infinite tower of tortoises. Most people would find this picture of universe is ridiculous.

Thirst for knowledge: Aristotle and his Philosophy

Around 340 BC, the Greek Philosopher Aristotle in his book On the Heavens was able to put forward two good arguments for believing that the earth was a round sphere rather a flat plate.

First, he realized that the earth coming between the sun and the moon. It caused eclipse of moon. The earth’s shadow on the moon was round which would be true if the earth was spherical.

Second, the Greeks knew from their travel that the North Star appeared lower in the sky when viewed from the South. It appears to be directly above an observer at the North Pole.

Aristotle thought that the earth was stationary and the sun, moon, planets and the stars moved in circular orbits around the earth.

A change in Aristotle’s Theory

A simple model was proposed in 1514 by a Polish priest Nicholas Copernicus. His idea was that the sun was stationary at the center and the earth and the planets moved in circular orbits around the sun.

Galileo Galilei’s Views

He started publicly to support the Copernicus theory. In 1609, he started observing the night sky with a telescope (which had just been invented). When he looked at the Jupiter, Galileo found that several small satellites or moons that orbited around it.

Sir Isaac Newton’s Theory

In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton published his Philosphiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, in which he not only put forward a theory of how bodies move in the space and time, but also developed the complicated mathematics needed to analyse those motions.

In addition, Newton postulated law of Universal Gravitation. According to which each body in the universe was attracted toward every other body by a force that was stronger. The more massive the bodies and the closer they were each other. It was this same force that caused objects to fall to the ground. Newton went to show that, according to his law; gravity causes the moon to move in an elliptical orbit around the earth and causes the earth and planets to follow elliptical paths around the sun.

Theories Evolved in the Twentieth Century

When most people believed in an essentially static and unchanging universe, the question of whether or not it had a beginning was really one of the metaphysics or theology. Everyone thought that the universe could exist forever.

Edwin Hubble’s Observation

In 1929, Edwin Hubble made a landmark that wherever you look distant galaxies are moving away from us. In other words the universe is expanding.
Hubble’s observation suggested that there was a time, called the Big Bang. He believed that time had a beginning when there was a Big Bang. One can imagine that God created universe at literally any time in the past. God created the universe at the instant of Big Bang.

A Good Theory

The author (Stephen Hawking) believes that a good theory is one, which satisfies two requirements.
First, it must accurately describe a large class of observation on the basis of a model that contains only a few arbitrary elements.
Second, it must make definite predictions about the results of future observations.
For instance Aristotle’s theory did not make any definite predictions, on the other hand Newton’s theory of gravity was based on even simple model in which, bodies attracted each other with a force.

As a philosopher of science Karl Popper has emphasized, a good theory is characterized by the fact that it makes a number of predictions that could be disproved or falsified by observation. The theories will survive each time some new predictions are made.

Einstein’s general theory of relativity predicted a slightly different motion from Newton’s theory of gravity.

Goal of Science

The eventual goal of science is to provide a single theory that describes the whole universe. Scientist tries to separate the problem into two parts. First, there are laws that tell us change with time. Secondly, there is the question of the initial state of the universe.
Many people believe that God being omnipotent could have created the universe and created the laws for the universe.

It turns out to be very difficult to devise a theory to describe the universe all in one go. We try to split up the problems and try to explain them, but it may be that this approach is completely wrong. It may be impossible to find a solution by investigating parts of the problem in isolation.

Conclusion

Today scientists describe the universe in terms of the basic partial theories the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, the great intellectual achievement of the first half of this century.
The general theory of relativity describes the force of gravity and the large-scale structure of the universe.
Quantum mechanics on the other hand deals with phenomena on extremely small scales.

Unfortunately, however, these two theories are known to be inconsistent with each other. They both cannot be correct. Today we are searching for a theory, which will incorporate both the above theories.

Hence, scientists are trying to put forward a unified theory, which will describe everything in the universe. But the search for ultimate theory of the universe seems difficult to justify on practical grounds. It may not aid the survival of our species. It may not even affect our life styles. But ever since the dawn of civilization, people have not been content to see events as unconnected and inexplicable. Today we still yearn to know why we are here and where we came from. Our desire for knowledge makes us explore the universe. And we would like to know a complete description of the universe we live in.

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