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22 April 2016

THE USE OF DISCOURSE CONNECTIVES IN THE ACADEMIC WRITING OF PROFESSIONAL STUDENTS


ABSTRACT 
The present study attempts to inquire the use of conjunctions in descriptive paragraphs written by first year professional ESL undergraduates. The data comprises of a set of 30 descriptive academic paragraphs collected from an engineering college, in order to explore the use different types of conjunctions based on Swan’s (2002) classification of connectives. The findings reveal that the learners used conjunctions inappropriately and they also used coordinating conjunctions very frequently than subordinating conjunctions as part of their writing. The participants encountered problems while using conjunctions to be attributed to various reasons. Initially, the use of their first language may result from a negative transfer. Though, it leads to the overgeneralization in the second language writing production. The learners produced connectives in their writing involuntarily lacking a proper intellectual capacity of its intended use. 

Keywords: Conjunctions, Coordinating Conjunctions, Subordinating Conjunctions, linking words, discourse connectives. 

For full paper click here


21 April 2016

214 Common Errors in English - misused forms

Common Errors in English


Misused Forms

Using the wrong preposition 

Mistakes are often made by using the wrong preposition after certain words.
The following list includes the words which most often give trouble:

1 Absorbed (- very much interested) in, not at.
Don't say: The man was absorbed in his work. /
Say: The man was absorbed in his work.

2 Accuse of, not for.
Don't say: She accused the man for stealing. /
Say: She accused the man of stealing.
Note: Charge takes with
1 The man was charged with murder.

3 Accustomed to, not with.
Don't say: I'm accustomed with hot weather. /
Say: I'm accustomed to hot weather.
Note: Also used to: He is used to the heat.

 4 Afraid of, not from.
Don't say: Laura is afraid from the dog. /
Say: Laura is afraid of the dog.

5 Aim at, not on or against.
Don't say: She aimed on {or against) the target.
/ Say: She aimed at the target,
6 Angry with, not against.
Don't say: The teacher was angry against him.
/ Say: The teacher was angry with him.

7 Anxious (= troubled) about, not for.
Don't say.'They're anxious for his health.
•/ Say: They're anxious about his health.

8 Arrive at, not to.
Don't say: We arrived to the village at night.
 / Say:: We arrived at the village at night.

9 Ashamed of, not from.
Don't say: He's now ashamed from his conduct.
/ Say: He's now ashamed of his conduct.

10 Believe in, not to.
Don't say: We believe to God.
/ Say: We believe in God.


11 Boast of or about, not for.
Don't say: James boasted for his strength.
/ Say: James boasted of (or about) his strength.

12 Careful of, with or about, not for.
Don't say: Elke's very careful for her health.
/ Say: Elke's very careful of/about her health. Or: You should be more careful with your money.
.13 Travel by train, etc., not with the train, etc.
Don't say: He travelled with the train yesterday.
/ Say: He travelled by train yesterday.
14 Complain about, not for.
Don't say: Annette complained for the weather.
/ Say: Annette complained about the weather.


15 Composed of, not from.
Don't soy: Our class is composed from thirty students.
/ Say: Our class is composed of thirty students.
16 Confidence in, not to.
Don't say: I have great confidence to you.
/ Say: I have great confidence in you.
17 Conform to, not with.
Don't say:'We must conform with the rules.
 / Say. We must conform to the rules.

18 Congratulate on, not for.
Don't say: I congratulate you for your success.
 / Say: I congratulate you on your success.

19 Consist of, not from.
Don't say: A year consists from twelve months.
/ Say: A year consists of twelve months.

20 Covered with, not by.
Don't say: The mountains are covered by snow.
 / Say: The mountains are covered with/in snow.

21 Cure of, not from.
Don't say: The man was cured from his illness.
/ Say: The man was cured of his illness.

22 Depend on or upon, not from.
Don't say: It depends from her.
/ Say: It depends on (or upon) her.

23 Deprive of, not from.
Don't say: Nelson Mandela was deprived from his freedom.
/ Soy: Nelson Mandela was deprived of his freedom.

24 Die of an illness, not from an illness.
Don't say: Many people have died.from malaria.
/ Say: Many people have died of malaria.


25 Different from, not than.
Don't say: My book is different than yours.
/ Say: My book is different from yours.

26 Disappointed by, about or at, not from.
(a) by/at/about:
Don't say: Phillipa was disappointed from the low mark she got in the test.
/ Say: Phillipa was disappointed by/about/at the low mark she got in the test.
(b) with/in:
Don't say: Jane was disappointed from her son.
/ Say: Jane was disappointed with/in her son.


27 Divide into parts, not in parts.
 Don't say: I divided the cake in four parts.
/ Say: I divided the cake into four parts.

28 No doubt (n) of or about, not for.
Don't say: I've no doubt for his ability.
/ Say: I've no doubt of (or about) his ability.

29 Dressed in, not with.
Don't say: The woman was dressed with black.
/ Say:The woman was dressed in black.

30 Exception to, not of.
Don't say: This is an exception of the rule.
/ Say: This is an exception to the rule.

31 Exchange for, not by.
Don't say: He exchanged his collection of matchboxes by some foreign stamps.
/ Say: He exchanged his collection of matchboxes for some foreign stamps.

32 Fail in, not from.
Don't say: Steven failed from maths last year.
/ Say: Steven failed in maths last year.
33 Full of, not with or from.
Don't say: The jar was full with (or from) oil.
 / Say: The jar was full of oil.

 34 Get rid of, not from.
Don't say: I'll be glad to get rid from him.
/ Say: I'll be glad to get rid of him.

35 Glad about, not from or with.
Don't say: Francis was glad from (or with) receiving your letter.
/ Say: Francis was glad about receiving your letter.

36 Good at, not in.
Don't say: My sister's good in maths.
/ Say: My sister's good at maths.

37 Guard against, not from.
Don't soy: You must guard from bad habits.
/ Say; You must guard against bad habits.

38 Guilty of, not for.
Don't say: He was found guilty for murder.
/ Say: He was found guilty of murder

39 Independent of, not from.
Don't say: Clare's independent from her parents.
/ Say: Clare's independent of her parents.

40 Indifferent to, not for.
Don't say: They're indifferent for politics.
/ Say;They're indifferent to politics.

41 Insist on, not to.
Don't say: He always insisted to his opinion.
/ Say: He always insisted on his opinion.

42 Interested in, not for.
Don't say: She's not interested for her work.
/ Say: She's not interested in her work.

43 Jealous of, not from.
Don't say: He's very jealous from his brother.
/ Say: He's very jealous of his brother.

44 Leave for a place, not to a place.
Don't say:They're leaving to England soon.
/ Say: They're leaving for England soon.

45 Live on, not from.
Don't say: He lives from his brother's money.
/ Say: He lives on his brother's money. .

46 Look at, not to.
Don't say: Look to this beautiful picture.
/ Say: Look at this beautiful picture.


47 Married to, not with.
Don't say: Angela was married with a rich man.
 Say: Angela was married to a rich man


48 Opposite to, not from
Don't say:Their house is opposite from ours.
-/ Say: Their house is opposite to ours.


49 Pass by a place, not from a place.
Don't say: Will you pass from the post-office?
 / Say: Will you pass by the post-office?

50 Play for a team, not with a team.
Don't say: He plays regularly with that team.
/ Say: He plays regularly for that team.

51 Pleased with, not from.
Don't say:The teacher is pleased from me.
/ Say: The teacher is pleased with me.

52 Popular with, not among.
Don't say: John's popular .among his friends.
/ Say: John's popular with his friends.

53 Prefer to, not from.
Don't say: I prefer a blue pen from a red one.
Say: I prefer a blue pen to a red one.

54 Preside at or over, not in.
Don't say: Who presided in the last meeting? /
 5ay:Who presided at (or over) the last meeting?

 55 Proud of, not for.
 Don't say: He's very proud for his promotion.
/ Say: He's very proud of his promotion.

56 Rejoice at or in, not for.
Don't say: We rejoiced for her success.
 / Say: We rejoiced at (or in) her success.

57 Related to, not with.
Don't say: Are you related with Simon in any way?
•/ Say Are you related to Simon in any way?


58 Repent of, not from.
Don't say: He repented from his crime.
/ Say: He repented of his crime.


59 Satisfied with, not from.
Don't say: Are you satisfied from your marks?
/ Say: Are you satisfied with your marks?

 60 Similar to, not with.
Don't say: Your house is similar with mine.
/ Say: Your house is similar to mine.


61 Sit at a desk etc., not on a desk etc.
Don't say: The bank manager was sitting on his desk.
/ Say: The bank manager was sitting at his desk. 

62 Spend on, not for. 
Don't say: \ spend a lot of time for my computer. 
/ Say: I spend a lot of time on my computer. 

63 Succeed in, not at. 
Don't say: 1 hope he'll succeed at his work. 
/ Say: I hope he'll succeed in his work. 

64 Superior to, not from or than. 
Don't say: This is superior from (or than) that.
 / 5«y.This is superior to that. 


67 Suspect of, not for. 
Don't say: I suspect Kate for stealing the pen. 
/ Say: I suspect Kate of stealing the pen. 

68 Take by» not from. 
Don't say: Robert took his brother from the hand. 
/ Say: Robert took his brother by the hand. 

 69 Tie to, not OK . 
Don't say;The girl tied the string on the kite. 
/Say:The girl tied the string to the kite. 

70 Tired of, not from. 
Don't say: The boys are tired from eating boiled eggs. 
/ .say:Thc boys are tired of eating boiled eggs. 

71 Translate into, not to. 
Don't say; Translate this passage to English. 
/ Say: Translate this passage into English. 

72 Tremble with cold, etc., not from cold. etc. 
Don't say: The man was trembling from cold. 
Say::The man was trembling with cold. 

73 Warn (a person) of danger, not about danger. 
Don't say: They were warned about the danger. 
/ Say: They were warned of the danger. 

74 Write in ink, not with ink. 
Don't say: I've written the letter with ink. 
/ Say: I've written the letter in ink.  


Misuse of the infinitive
 Use the gerund and not the infinitive: (a) After prepositions or preposition phrases:

75 Without, etc. + -ing.
Don't say: Do your work without to speak.
Say: Do your work without speaking.

76 Instead of, etc. + -ing.
Don't say: He went away instead to watt.
Say: He went away instead of waiting.
(b) After words which regularly take a preposition:

77 Capable of + -ing.
Don't say:They're quite capable to do that.
Say: They're quite capable of doing that.

78 Fond of + -ing.
Don't say: She's always fond to talk.
/ Say: She's always fond of talking.

79 Insist on + -ing.
Don't say: Simon insisted to go to London.
/ Say: Simon insisted on going to London.

80 Object to + -ing.
Don't say: I object to be treated like this.
/ Say: I object to being treated like this.

81 Prevent from + -ing.
Don't say: The rain prevented me to go.
/ Say: The rain prevented me from going.

82 Succeed in 4- -ing.
Don't say: Paula succeeded to win the prize.
/ Say: Paula succeeded in winning the prize.

83 Think of + -ing.
Don't say: 1 often think to go to England.
/ Say: 1 often think of going to England.


84 Tired of i- -ing.
Don't say: The customer got tired to wait.
/ Say: The customer got tired of waiting.

85 Used to + -ing.
Don't say: She's used to get up early.
/ Say: She's used to getting up early.

(c) After certain verbs:
86 Avoid -i- -ing.
Don't say: You can't avoid to make mistakes.
/ Say: You can't avoid making mistakes.
87 Enjoy + -ing.
Don't say: I enjoy to play football.
/ Say: I enjoy playing football.

88 Excuse + -ing.
Don't say: Please excuse me to be so late.
/ Say: Please excuse my being so late.
Or: Please excuse me for being so late.
89 Finish + -ing.
Don't say: Have you finished to speak?
/ Say: Have you finished speaking?
90 Go on (continue) + -ing.
Don't say: The music went on to play all day.
/ Say: The music
went on playing all day.

91 Mind (object to) + -ing.
Don't say: Would you mind to open the door?
/ Say: Would you mind opening the door?
Misused forms

Use of the gerund
Use the gerund {and not the infinitive):

1 After prepositions.
Examples: He worked without stopping. She played instead of working.
2 After words which regularly take a preposition, such as fond of, insist on, tired of, succeed in.
Examples: I'm tired of doing the work again. He succeeded in catching the rat.
3 After certain verbs, such as avoid, enjoy, finish, stop, risk, excuse.
Examples: They enjoy playing football. The wind has stopped boxing.
4 After the adjectives busy and worth.
Examples: Lena was busy writing a book. This date is worth remembering.
5 After certain phrases, such as it's no use, it's no good, I can't help, would you mind, look forward to.
Examples: I think it's no use trying again. J can't help feeling angry about it.
Use the gerund or the infinitive after certain verbs, such as
begin, like, dislike, hate, love, prefer.
Example: He began to talk or He began talking.

92 Practise + -ing.
Don't say: You must practise to speak English.
/ Say: You must practise speaking English.

93 Remember + -ing.
Don't say: I don't remember to have seen b\ra.
/ Say:
I don't remember seeing him. Or; I don't remember having seen him.

94 Risk + -ing.
Don't say: We couldn't risk to leave him alone.
/ Say: We couldn't risk leaving him alone.

95 Stop f -rag.
Don't say: The wind has almost stopped'to b'rAv.
/ Say: The wind has almost stopped blowing.

(d) Afiei ce.rtah: adjectives:
95 Busy + -ing.
Don't say: tie was busy to revise the exams.
Say: He was busy revising for the exams.

97 Worth + -ing.
Don't say. Is today's film worth to see?
/ Say: Is today's film worth seeing?
(e) After certain phrases:

98 Have difficulty in + -ing.
Don't say: She has no difficulty to do it.
/ Say: She has no difficulty in doing it.

Misused forms

99 Have the pleasure of + -ing.
Don't say: I had the pleasure to meet him.
/ Say: I had the pleasure of meeting him.


100 It's no use + -ing.
Don't say: It's no use to cry like a baby.
/ Say: It's no use crying like a baby.

101 It's no good + -ing.
Don't say: It's no good to get angry.
/ Say: It's no good getting angry.

102 Look forward to + -ing.
Don't say: I look forward to see him soon.
/ Say: I look forward to seeing him soon.

103 There is no harm in +• -ing.
Don't say: There's no harm to visit her now.
/ Say: There's no harm in visiting her now.
.
Use of the wrong tense
104 Using the past tense after did instead of the infinitive without to.
(a) To ask questions:
Don't say: Did you went to school yesterday?
/ Say. Did you go to school yesterday?
(b) To make negatives:
Don't say: 1 did not went to school yesterday.
/ Say: I did not go to school yesterday.

105 Using the third person singular after does instead of the infinitive without to.
(a) To ask questions:
Don't say: Does the gardener waters the flowers?
/ Say: Does the gardener water the flowers?
(b) To make negatives:
Don't say: The man doesn't waters the flowers.
/ Say: The man doesn't water the flowers.
106 Using the third person singular after can, must, etc., instead 6f the infinitive without to.
Don't say: Ian can speaks English very well.
/ Say: Ian can speak English very well.
107 Wrong sequence of tenses.
Don't say: Rachel asked me what I am doing.
/ Say: Rachel asked me what I was doing.
Misused forms
108 Using will/11 instead of would/'d in a subordinate clause.
Don't say: He said (that) he will/'ll come tomorrow.
/ Say: He said (that) he would/'d come tomorrow.
109 Using may instead of might in a subordinate clause.
Don't say: Last Sunday Ailsa told me that she may come.
/ Say: Last Sunday Ailsa told me that she might come.
110 Using can instead of could in a subordinate clause.
Don't say: Ben thought he can win the prize.
 Say: Ben thought he could win the prize.

111 Using the past simple tense after to + the infinitive.
Don't say: He tried to kicked the ball away.
Say: He tried to kick the ball away.

112 Using the past simple tense after an auxiliary verb, instead of the past participle.
Don't say: I've forgot to bring my book.
Say: I've forgotten to bring my book.

113 Using must or ought to to express a past obligation.
Don't say: You ought to come yesterday.
Say: You ought to have come yesterday. Or: You should have come yesterday.

114 Using the present perfect instead of the simple past tense.
Don't say: I have seen a good film yesterday.
 Say: I saw a good film yesterday.

115 Using the simple past tense instead of the present perfect.
 Don't say: 1 saw the Parthenon of Athens.
 Say: I have seen the Parthenon of Athens.

116 Using the simple past tense with a recent, action, instead of the present perfect.
Don't say: The clock struck.
 Say: The clock has struck.

117 Using the simple present instead of the present perfect.
 Don't say: I'm at this school two years.
 Say: I've been at this school two years.

118 Using the simple present instead of the present perfect after a since clause of time.
 Don't say: Since he came, we're happy.
 Say: Since he came, we've been happy. The verb after a since clause of time is generally in the present perfect tense.

119 Using the simple present instead of the present continuous.
 Don't say: Look! Two boys fight.
 Say: Look! Two boys are fighting.

120 The continuous form of the tense misused.
Don't soy: Pm understanding the lesson now.
 Say: I understand the lesson now.

121 Using the present continuous for a habitual action, instead of the simple present.
 Don't say: Every morning I'm going for a walk.
 Say: Every morning I go for a walk. Use the simple present (and not the present continuous) to express a present habitual action.


122 Using the verb to use for the present habitual action.
Don't say: I use to get up at six every morning.
 Say: I get up at six every morning. Or: I'm accustomed to getting up at six, etc.
 The verb to use doesn't express a habit in the present. / use means / employ. I use a pen to write with.


123 Using the past continuous for a habitual action, instead of the simple past tense.
Don't say: Last year I was walking to school every day.
 Say: Last year I walked to school every day.
Use the simple past tense to express a habit in the past, and not the past continuous


124 Using the past tense instead of the past perfect.
 Don't say: The train already left before I arrived.
 Say: The train had already left before I arrived.
Use the past perfect whe n the time of one past action is more past than that of another. Put the action which wa s completed first in the past perfect and the second action in the past tense. 1A. Misused forms

125 Using the past perfect instead of the simple past tense.
Don't say: I'd finished the book yesterday
 Say: I finished the book yesterday.
Don't use the past perfect unless there is another verb j n the past tense in the same sentence. (See Section 124.)

126 Using the future in a clause of time, instead of the present tense.
Don't say: I'll see you when I shall come back.
 Say: I'll see you when I come back.
 If the verb in the main clause is in the future, the verb in the time clause must be in the present tense

 127 Using the future in the if clause instead of the present tense.
Don't say: If he'll ask me, I will/'ll stay.
 Say: If he asks me, I will/'ll stay.
Use the present tense in a future conditional in the if clause and the future tense in the main clause

128 Using the present tense after as if or as though instead of the past.
Don't say: Janine talks as if she knows everything.
 Say: Janine talks as if she knew everything.
Use the past tense after the phrase as if or as though. He talks as if he knew everything, means He talks as he would talk if he knew everything.

129 Using the past conditional of wish instead of the present indicative.
Don't say: I would wish to know more English.
 Say: I wish (that) I knew more English.
Use the present tense of wish to express a present meaning , followed by a that clause containing a past tense.

130 Using a wrong tense with an improbable condition.
 Don't say: If he would/'d ask me, I would/'d stay.
 Say: If he asked me, I would/'d stay.
 Express an improbable condition by the past tense an d use the conditional in the main clause. This use of the past tense doesn't indicate a time but a degree of probability

131 Using a wrong tense with a counterfactual condition.
 Don't say: If he would/'d have asked me, I would/'d stay.
 Say: If he had/'d asked me, I would/'d have stayed.
 Express a counterfactual (that didn't happen) condition by the past perfect and use the past conditional in the ma m clause. This use of the past perfect doesn't indicate a time but an impossible happening.

132 Using the infinitive instead of a finite verb.
 Don't say: Sir, to go home to get my book?
 Say: Sir, may I go home to get my book?
 The infinitive simply names an action without reference to person, numbe r or time Therefore, it can't mak e sense without the help of a finite verb.

133 Mixing up the tenses.

Don't say: They asked him to be captain, but he refuses.
 Say: They asked him to be captain, but he refused.
 If you begin with a verb referring to past time, keep the verb forms in the past. The same rule applies to tenses throughout a composition. (See Exercises 24-30 on pages 148-151.) Mfsused forms Haw look at ... Use of certain tenses

1 Use the Simple Present for habitual or frequent ac'icns, and use the Present Continuous for actions taking place at the present moment.
Examples: 1 read the newspaper every day. I'm reading an English book (now).

2 Use the Simple Past when a definite time or date is mentioned, and use the Present Perfect when no time is mentioned. Examples: 1 did my homework last night. I've done my homework (so I can watch TV - or whatever - now).
2 Express habitual or repeated actions in the past either by the Simple Past or by the phrase used to.
 Example: 1 went (or 1 used to go) to the cinema every week last year.

 Note : Don' t use the Pas t Continuou s (/ was going) for a pas t habitual action , but for d n actio n in the past continuin g a t th e tim e anothe r actio n rook plac e / was going to the cinem a when I met him.
 4 The only correct tense to use is the Present Perfect if the action began in. the past and is still continuing in the present.
Example: I've been in this class for two months.
5 Be very careful NOT to use the future but the Present tense in a clause of time or condition, if the verb in the main clause is in the future.
 Example: 1 will/'ll visit the Parthenon when 1 go (or if I go) to Athens.

134 Miscellaneous examples 134 Confusion of gender.
 Don't say: The door is open, please shut her.
Say: The door is open, please shut it.

135 Using the possessive '$ with inanimate objects.
Don't say: Her room's window is open.
Say: The window of her room is open.

136 Using the objective case after the verb to be.
 Don't say: It was him.
 Say: It was he.

137 Using the objective case after the conjunction than.
Don't say: My sister is taller than me.
 Say: My sister is taller than I (am).

138 Using the subject pronoun after between.
 Don't say: It's a secret between you and I.
 Say: It's a secret between you and me.

139 Using an object pronoun before a gerund.
 Don't say: Him laughing at her was what made her angry.
 Say: His laughing at her was what made her angry.

140 Using an object pronoun in a double genitive.
 Don't say: A friend of him told us the news.
 Say A friend of his told us the news.

141 Misuse of -self forms.
 Don't say: Michael and myself are here,
 Say: Michael and I are here.

142 Using hisself or then selves instead of himself or themselves.
Don't say: They fell down and hurt theirselvcs.
 Say: They fell down and hurt themselves.

 143 Misuse of noun/verb homonyms.
Don't say: Becky played, a good play of chess.
 Say: Beck1 / played a good game of chess.

144 Using the relative pronoun which for persons.
Don't say: I've a brother which is at school.
 Say: I've a brother who is at school.

145 Using what or which after everything, etc.
Don't say: I heard everything which (or what) he said.
 Say: I heard everything (that) he said.

146 Who and whom.
Don't say: I saw the woman whom you said lived next door.
 Say: I saw the woman (who) you said lived next door.

147 Using who, whom, or which after the superlative, instead of that.
Don't say: It's the best which I've seen.
 Say: It's the best (that) I've seen.

148 The same as/same that.
Don't say: Amelia bought the same bag that me.
 Say: Amelia bought the same bag as me.

149 Using who? or what? instead of which?
Don't say: Who of the two boys is the taller?

176 Using the reason is because instead of the reason is that.
 Don't say: The reason is because I believe it.
 Say: The reason is that I believe it.

177 Using a country instead of the country.
Don't say: I spend my holidays in a country.
 Say: I spend my holidays in the country.

178 Using if instead of whether.
Don't say: I asked Paul if he was going.
Say: I asked Paul whether he was going.

179 Using any for two, instead of either.
 Don't say: Any of these two books is good.
 Say: Either of these two books is good.

180 Using likes me instead of I like.
Don't say: The cinema likes me very much.
 Say: I like the cinema very much.

181 Using neither ...or instead of neither ... nor.
Don't say: Sara speaks neither English or French.
 Say: Sara speaks neither English nor French.

182 Using both in a negative sentence instead of neither.
Don't nay: Both of them didn't go to school today.
 Say: Neither of them went to school today.

184 U:,ing and in a negative sentence instead of or.
Don't say: I don't like red and orange. I want the blue one.
 Say: I don't like red or orange. I want the blue one.


185 Using till instead of before or when.
Don't say: I'd reached the school till the rain started.
 Say: I'd reached the school before the rain started. Or Ed reached the school when the rain started.
The following are examples of such mistakes:

186 Take an exam, not give an exam.
Don't say: The pupil gave his exam.
 Say: The pupil took his exam.

187 To be right or wrong, not to have right or wrong.
 Don't say: You've right or You've wrong.
 Say: You're right or You're wrong.

188 To be busy, not to have work.
Don't say: I have much work this morning.
 Say: I'm very busy this morning.

189 It's cold, etc., not it has cold, etc.
Don't say: It has cold this winter.
 Say: It's cold this winter.

190 Go for a walk, not make a walk.
Don't say: We made a walk along the river.
 Say; We went for a walk along the river.

 191 Go for a ride on a bicycle, etc., not go for a walk on a bicycle, etc.
 Don't say: We went for a walk on our bicycles.
 Say: We went for a ride on our bicycles.

192 Mount or get on a horse, etc. not ride a horse, etc.
Don't say: Peter rode his horse and went home.
 Say: Peter got on his horse and rode home.

193 Dismount or get off a horse, etc., not come down from a horse, etc.
Don't say: They came down from their horses.
 Say. They got off their horses.

194 Go on foot, not go with the feet.
Don't say: Shall we go there with the feet?
 Say: Shall we go there on foot?

195 Take or have a shower, not make a shower.
Don't say: I make a shower every morning.
Say: I take a shower every morning. Or: 1 have a shower every morning.

196 Ask a question, not make a question.
 Don't say: Naomi made me several questions.
/ Say: Naomi asked me several questions. 41 Part 1

197 Take an hour, not need an hour, etc.
Don't say: I'll need an hour to do that.
 Say: It'll take me an hour to do that.

198 Give a discount, not make a discount.
 Don't say: He made me a small discount.
/ Say: He gave me a small discount.

199 Take exercise, not make exercise.
Don't say: You ought to make more exercise.
Say: You ought to take more exercise.

200 Give or deliver a lecture, not make a lecture.
Don't say: He made an interesting lecture.
Say: He gave an interesting lecture. Or: He delivered an interesting lecture.

201 Say one's prayers, not make or do one's prayer.
Don't say: I make my prayer before I go to bed.
Say: I say my prayers before 1 go to bed.

202 Pretend, not make oneself that.
Don't say: She makes herself that she knows.
 Say: She pretends to know.

203 Have a dream, not see a dream.
Don't say: I saw a strange dream last night.
 Say: I had a strange dream last night. Or: 1 dreamt a strange dream last night.

204 Smoke a cigarette, etc., not drink a cigarette, etc.
Don't say: He drinks too many cigarettes.
Say: He smokes too many cigarettes. 42 Misused forms

205 Make a mistake, not do a mistake.
Don't say: I did one mistake in dictation.
 Say: I made one mistake in dictation.

206 Tell or speak the truth, not say the truth.
Don't say: Fiona always says the truth.
 Say: Fiona always tells the truth. Or: Fiona always speaks the truth.


 207 See or watch a game, not to follow a game.
 Don't say: Did you follow the game?
Say: Did you see (or watch) the game?


208 Turn (switch) the light on or off, no t open or shut the light.
Don't say: Please open (or shut) the light.
 Say: Please turn on (or off) the light. Or: Please switch on (or off) the light.


209 Give an example, not bring an example.
Don't say: Can you bring a better example?
 Say: Can you give a better example?

210 Give a mark, not put a mark.
Don't say: The teacher put me a good mark.
 Say: The teacher gave me a good mark.


211 Set a watch by, not put a watch with.
Don't say: I put my watch with the radio news.
 Say: I set my watch by the radio news.

2 12 A watch is slow or fast, not goes behind or in front.
 Don't say: My watch goes two minutes behind.
 Say: My watch is two minutes slow.
Note W e can also say My watch loses or gains

213 Show a film, not play a film.
Don't say: This film will be played shortly.
 Say: This film will be shown shortly.

214 Have one's hair cut, not cut one's hair.
 Don't say: I'm going to cut my hair.
 Say: I'm going to have my hair cut. 

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