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22 May 2017

GANDHI NAMES

GANDHI NAMES 


African Gandhi ............................ Kennath Kounda
Modern Gandhi ................................... Baba Amthe
Burmese Gandhi ........................................Ong San
Kosavo Gandhi............................... Ibrahim Rugeva
Kerala Gandhi ...................................... K. Kelappan
Mayyazhi Gandhi ................... I.K. Kumaran Master
American Gandhi ...................... Martin Luther King
Sreelankan Gandhi ............................... Ariya Retne
Frontier Gandhi................. Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan

GENERAL STUDIES - POPULAR FATHERS

GENERAL STUDIES - POPULAR FATHERS

POPULAR FATHERS
World 

Father of Psychology.................. Sigmund Freud
Father of Cloning ............................... Ian Wilmut
Father of Printing .............................. Guttenberg
Father of History ............................... Herodotus
Father of Economics ........................ Adam Smith
Father of Philosophy ............................ Socrates
Father of Sociology ................. Augustus Comte
Father of English Poetry .......... Geoffrey Chaucer
Father of Biology.................................. Aristotle
Father of Essay................................. Montaigne
Father of Medicine.......................... Hippocrates
Father of Homeopathy .............. Samuel Haniman
Father of Socialism......................... Robert Owen
Father of Scientific Socialism.................Karl Marx
Father of Co-operation ................... Robert Owen
Father of Jurisprudence.................. John Locke
Father of Atom Bomb .......................... Otto Hahn
Father of Genetics........................ Gregor Mendel
Father of Motor Car ......................... Henry Ford
Father of Reformation ................... Martin Luther
Father of Greek Democracy .............. Clesthenes
Father of Bangladesh ....... Sheikh Mujibur Rehman
Father of Pakistan ............. Muhammed Ali Jinnah
Father of Tanzania ......................... Julius Nyrere
Father of Mathematics ...................... Pythagorus
Father of Modern Cartoon ........ William Hogarth

Father of Modern Computer.......... Charles Babbage
Father of Nuclear Physics ...... : Ernest Rutherford
Father of Modern Drama ............. Henrik J. Ibsen
Father of Modern Tourism ............ Thomas Cook
Father of Painting .................. Leonardo Da Vinci
Father of Green Revolution ........Norman Borlaug
Father of Renaissance ............................ Petrarch

INDIA

Father of the Nation ...................Mahatma Gandhi
Father of Ayurveda ................................ Athreya
Father of Astronomy....................... Varahamihira
Father of Sanskrit Drama ....................... Kalidasa
Father of Indian Renaissance.......... Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Father of Surgery.................................... Susruta
Father of Indian Unrest .............Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Father of Indian Budget ........ Professor Mahalanobis
Father of Indian Painting............... Nandalal Bose
Father of Indian Cinema .............. Dada Saheb Phalke
Father of Indian Engineering ............ M.Visweswariah
Father of Indian Green Revolution .......................... Dr M.S. Swaminathan
Father of Indian Railway ............. Lord Dalhousie
Father of Co-operative Movement in India .......... Frederic Nicholson
Father of Indian Printing ................ James Hickey
Father of Local Self-Government in India ... Lord Ripon


Father of Malayalam Language ........ Ezhuthachan
Father of Modern Travancore ... Marthanda Varma
Father of Kerala Renaissance ... Sree Narayana Guru
Father of Modern Hinduism .. Adi Shankaracharya

GENERAL STUDIES - POPULAR FATHERS

General studies Largest in the World

General studies

Largest in the World 


Largest continent ........................................... Asia
Largest ocean ............................................... Pacific
Largest river .............................................. Amazon
Largest river basin ..................................... Amazon
Largest lake (salt water) ....................... Caspian sea
Largest lake (fresh water) ..........Lake Superior (North America)
Largest artificial lake ..... Lake Mead at Hoover Dam, (USA). Originally known as Boulder.
Largest bay ................ Hudson Bay (North Canada)
Largest gulf ..................................... The Gulf of Mexico
Largest gorge ........................ Grand Canyon (USA)
Largest sea .................................... South China sea
Largest delta....... Sundarbans (India & Bangladesh)
Largest peninsula ........................................ Arabia
Largest island ......................................... Greenland
Largest country (in area) .............................. Russia
Largest country (in population)...................... China
Largest temple` ................... Angkorwat (Cambodia)
Largest archipelago .................................Indonesia
Largest airport .......... King Khalid International Airport at Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
Largest church ................St.Peter's Basilica, (Rome)
Largest mosque ...... Sha Faisal Mosque (Islamabad)
Largest embassy............ Russian Embassy (Beijing)
Largest war plane .......................... Mirage (France)
Largest prison ............................. Kharkov (Russia)
 Largest hotel ........... MGM Grand Hotel and Casino, Las Vegas (USA)
Largest desert.................................. Sahara (Africa)
Largest forest ........................Coniferous Forests of Northern Russia
Largest stadium ................. Strahove (Czech Republic)
Largest library ... United States Library of Congress
Largest museum .................... American Museum of Natural History (New York)
Largest animal ....................................... Blue whale
Largest land animal ........... The African Bush Elephant
Largest democracy ......................................... India
Largest electorate ........................................... India
Largest town ......................... Mt. Isa (Queensland)
Largest palace ..................... Imperial Palace, Beijing
Largest dam........................... Three Gorges (China)
Largest landmass................The Eurasian Landmass
Largest park ...... Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada)
Largest zoo ...... Krugal National Park (South Africa)
Largest river island ......................... Majuli (Assam)
Largest inland sea .......................Mediterranean sea
Largest canal ........................ Keil Canal in Germany
Largest reef ............... Great Barrier Reef, (Australia)
Largest city (population)................... Tokyo (Japan)
Largest estuary..................................... Ob (Russia)
Largest cave ........ Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (USA)
Largest strait ........................................ Tartar strait
Largest wall ......................... The Great Wall (China)
Largest cemetery ....................... Leningrad (Russia)
Largest railway station ......... Grand Central Terminal (New York)
Largest university building ..................................... University of Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
Largest open university ........Indira Gandhi National Open University (New Delhi)
Largest steel plant ..........Nippon Steel plant (Japan)
Largest wingspan ....................................Albatross
Largest active volcano ............Mauna lao on Hawaii
Largest planet ............................................. Jupiter
Largest bird .................................................Ostrich
Largest seabird .......................................Albatross
Largest diamond ................................. The Cullinan
Largest parliament. The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
Largest north to the south stretch of land ........ America
Largest cold desert ........................Gobi (Mongolia)
Largest plateau ................................... Pamir (Tibet)
Largest mountain range ..................... The Himalaya
Largest statue ............................... Statue of liberty
Largest bank .................... World bank (Washington) Mammoth Cave is the longest cave system known in the world. It is situated in USA. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27, 1981, and an international Biosphere Reserve on September 26, 1990. It is centred around the Green River, with a tributary, the Nolin River, feeding into the Green just inside the park.
Largest army.................................................. China
Largest cricket stadium ......... Melbourne (Australia)
Largest navy .................................................. USA
Largest airforce............................................... USA
Largest natural satellite ............. Ganymede (Jupiter)
Largest port .......................................... New Jersey
Largest book publishing company .......................... Mc Graw Hill (New York)
Largest Dome in the World... Astrodome, in Housten (U.S.A)
Largest Epic ........................................ Mahabharat
Largest carnivorous mammal ................... Polar Bear

General studies

Largest in the World 

National Symbols National Anthem of India

National Symbols
National Anthem  of India

The song Jana gana mana is the National Anthem of India which, was composed by Rabindra Nath Tagore in 1911, originally in Bengali.  It was adopted by Constituent Assembly on January 24, 1950 in its Hindi version.  The song Jana gana mana was first published in January, 1912 under the title ‘Bharat Vidhata’ in Tattva Bodhini Patrika.  The song was translated in English in 1919 with the title “Morning song of India’’.  It was first sung at the Calcutta Session of Congress on December 27, 1911.  Playing time of full version of National Anthem is 52 seconds while it is 20 seconds for first and last lines of the stanza.

National Symbols
National Anthem  of India

National Symbols National Emblem of India

National Symbols
National Emblem of India



National Emblem is adopted from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Asoka on January 26, 1950.  In this emblem, only three lions are visible, the fourth lion being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left. The bell-shaped lotus (as in the original) has been omitted. The other animals present in the emblem are - An Elephant and a Lion.  The words Satyameva Jayate are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script. These words are taken from Mundaka Upanishad.  SThe similar structure of Sarnath Lion capital was also found in Thailand.

National Symbols
National Emblem of India

National Symbols National Flag of India

National Symbols
National Flag of India



National Flag was adopted by Constituent Assembly of India on July 22, 1947. This tricolour flag was first accepted by the Indian National Congress in 1931, having Charkha in place of today’s Chakra. It is a horizontal tricolour of deep Saffron at the top (stands for courage, sacrifice and renunciation), White at the middle (shows truth and purity in thoughts), dark Green at the bottom (symbol of life abundance and prosperity).
 A wheel (Chakra) in the centre of the white strip is the symbol of progress and movement. It has 24 spokes.  Supreme Court declared the right to hoist the lag as a Fundamental Right under Article 19 (i) (a) of the Constitution in 2002. Flag hoisting in India is regulated by flag code of India, 2002.  The Flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya and first time, the flag was hoisted by Sacchindra Prasad Bose in 1906 in Calcutta and later on in year 1907, an another tricolour flag was unfurled by Madam Bhikaji Cama in stuttgart. The first flag committee was headed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

National Symbols
National Flag of India

11 May 2017

Oh Father, Dear Father – Raj Kinger


Oh Father, Dear Father 

                                                   – Raj Kinger

1.       Why is the letter written?
‘Oh Father, Dear Father’ by Raj Kinger is a heart-wrenching letter addressed to a father by his son. The letter writer Rahul is the class topper in his school who slips to the second rank for losing a quarter marks. This letter is his anguished plea to his father who scolds him for losing his first rank. Rahul is against the India educational system which is characterized by rote learning without any practical exposure to the real world. He condemns the emphasis placed on examinations, marks and ranks.
2.       What is the father’s advice to the writer of the letter?
Rahul and his father are poles apart. Rahul’s father is a typical rigid-minded Indian parent who believes in high score. He leads a complicated and boring life. He earns well, believes in the importance of money and has a set of rules written for his son. He has a specific approach to life and cannot expect his son to go against his approach. He has an uncompromising attitude and has always taught his son to be moulded in the mould of his beliefs. He often asks his son to think twice before studying and before answering the papers. He scolds his son for losing his first rank.
Rahul, on the other hand, is intelligent but loves a simple and natural life. He is inspired by the life style of his grandparents. Rahul learns from his grandparents that peace of mind and happiness is the most important things in life. For Rahul, practical education matters more than theoretical examinations. In his opinion, high scores are of no use if one is unable to put his theoretical knowledge into practice. Real education is that which comes handy in our day-today life. For instance it should teach us how to protect our plants from pests, how to fix a fuse or how to make your own desk using your carpenter tools.
(Rahul’s argument against the education system in India is quite convincing. He is against the Indian educational system which is characterized by rote learning without any practical exposure to the real world. He condemns the emphasis placed on examinations, marks and ranks.)
3.      Write brief note on the relationship between the letter writer and his father?
Rahul and his father are poles apart. Rahul’s father is a typical rigid-minded Indian parent who believes in high score. He leads a complicated and boring life. He earns well, believes in the importance of money and has a set of rules written for his son. He has a specific approach to life and cannot expect his son to go against his approach. He has an uncompromising attitude and has always taught his son to be moulded in the mould of his beliefs. He often asks his son to think twice before studying and before answering the papers. He scolds his son for losing his first rank.
Rahul, on the other hand, is intelligent but loves a simple and natural life. He is inspired by the life style of his grandparents. Rahul learns from his grandparents that peace of mind and happiness is the most important things in life. For Rahul, practical education matters more than theoretical examinations. In his opinion, high scores are of no use if one is unable to put his theoretical knowledge into practice. Real education is that which comes handy in our day-today life. For instance it should teach us how to protect our plants from pests, how to fix a fuse or how to make your own desk using your carpenter tools.
(Rahul’s argument against the education system in India is quite convincing. He is against the Indian educational system which is characterized by rote learning without any practical exposure to the real world. He condemns the emphasis placed on examinations, marks and ranks.)
4.      What is the letter writer’s perception of literacy?
Rahul and his father are poles apart. Rahul’s father is a typical rigid-minded Indian parent who believes in high score. He leads a complicated and boring life. He earns well, believes in the importance of money and has a set of rules written for his son. He has a specific approach to life and cannot expect his son to go against his approach. He has an uncompromising attitude and has always taught his son to be moulded in the mould of his beliefs. He often asks his son to think twice before studying and before answering the papers. He scolds his son for losing his first rank.
Rahul, on the other hand, is intelligent but loves a simple and natural life. He is inspired by the life style of his grandparents. Rahul learns from his grandparents that peace of mind and happiness is the most important things in life. For Rahul, practical education matters more than theoretical examinations. In his opinion, high scores are of no use if one is unable to put his theoretical knowledge into practice. Real education is that which comes handy in our day-today life. For instance it should teach us how to protect our plants from pests, how to fix a fuse or how to make your own desk using your carpenter tools.
(Rahul’s argument against the education system in India is quite convincing. He is against the Indian educational system which is characterized by rote learning without any practical exposure to the real world. He condemns the emphasis placed on examinations, marks and ranks.)
5.      How does the letter writer critique the education system in India? Does he make a convincing argument? Why/ Why not?
Rahul and his father are poles apart. Rahul’s father is a typical rigid-minded Indian parent who believes in high score. He leads a complicated and boring life. He earns well, believes in the importance of money and has a set of rules written for his son. He has a specific approach to life and cannot expect his son to go against his approach. He has an uncompromising attitude and has always taught his son to be moulded in the mould of his beliefs. He often asks his son to think twice before studying and before answering the papers. He scolds his son for losing his first rank.
Rahul, on the other hand, is intelligent but loves a simple and natural life. He is inspired by the life style of his grandparents. Rahul learns from his grandparents that peace of mind and happiness is the most important things in life. For Rahul, practical education matters more than theoretical examinations. In his opinion, high scores are of no use if one is unable to put his theoretical knowledge into practice. Real education is that which comes handy in our day-today life. For instance it should teach us how to protect our plants from pests, how to fix a fuse or how to make your own desk using your carpenter tools.
Rahul’s argument against the education system in India is quite convincing. He is against the Indian educational system which is characterized by rote learning without any practical exposure to the real world. He condemns the emphasis placed on examinations, marks and ranks.
6.       How did the letter writer’s teacher react to his asking her a question?
Rahul has an unpleasant experience with his Biology teacher. When his Rose plant is attacked by pests, Rahul seeks advice of his teacher to save his plant. But the teacher gets irritated as she thinks it a question out of their syllabus and asks him to approach a gardener for advice. The teacher serves as a warning to all those teachers who do not show any interest or reverence towards their profession and mould the students into mere mechanical objects.
7.      What kind of childhood does the letter writer wish he had?
Rahul loved the peaceful and happy childhood of his grandparents. Rahul’s grandfather used to speak of a carefree and beautiful childhood, of the days when he spent plucking mangoes and guavas from their jameen, of picnics on the banks of the river where men cooked mouth-watering food and of playing marbles and gilli danda. During his grandfather’s childhood, studies were only secondary for our survival. The major subject in their education was living and experiencing.
Rahul had always found his grandfather in the right place. He was a man who believed in simplicity in sharp contrast to Rahul’s father. Rahul asks his father whether his grandfather was a liar in order to remind him that his grandfather’s life was the one worth living and not any failure. Seventy years He refers to the 70 years age of his grandfather and questions his father if the world has turned upside down during this period. It was during these 70 years that his grandfather had acquired a load of experience which Rahul considers ideal. 
8.      What approach did the letter writer’s grandfather have towards studies?
Rahul loved the peaceful and happy childhood of his grandparents. Rahul’s grandfather used to speak of a carefree and beautiful childhood, of the days when he spent plucking mangoes and guavas from their jameen, of picnics on the banks of the river where men cooked mouth-watering food and of playing marbles and gilli danda. During his grandfather’s childhood, studies were only secondary for our survival. The major subject in their education was living and experiencing.
Rahul had always found his grandfather in the right place. He was a man who believed in simplicity in sharp contrast to Rahul’s father. Rahul asks his father whether his grandfather was a liar in order to remind him that his grandfather’s life was the one worth living and not any failure. Seventy years He refers to the 70 years age of his grandfather and questions his father if the world has turned upside down during this period. It was during these 70 years that his grandfather had acquired a load of experience which Rahul considers ideal. 
9.      Describe the letter writer’s grandparents and their outlooks towards studies and life.
Rahul loved the peaceful and happy childhood of his grandparents. Rahul’s grandfather used to speak of a carefree and beautiful childhood, of the days when he spent plucking mangoes and guavas from their jameen, of picnics on the banks of the river where men cooked mouth-watering food and of playing marbles and gilli danda. During his grandfather’s childhood, studies were only secondary for our survival. The major subject in their education was living and experiencing.
Rahul had always found his grandfather in the right place. He was a man who believed in simplicity in sharp contrast to Rahul’s father. Rahul asks his father whether his grandfather was a liar in order to remind him that his grandfather’s life was the one worth living and not any failure. Seventy years He refers to the 70 years age of his grandfather and questions his father if the world has turned upside down during this period. It was during these 70 years that his grandfather had acquired a load of experience which Rahul considers ideal. 
10.   Why is the letter writer’s grandmother wise?
Rahul’s grandmother was semi-literate while his mother was highly qualified. Yet his grandmother lived a happy and contended life and was very wise. She took delight in cooking, gardening and reading the Gita. Rahul’s mother, on the other hand, was always tensed and nervous. Rahul questions his father whether literacy has become a harbinger of restlessness, fear and frustration. 
11.   How did the letter writer lose his first rank?
Rahul expresses a fear that his rigid schooling will deprive him of the joy of learning. He tells his father that the over emphasis on his studies has taken away all his enjoyment from his childhood. He says that education does not seem to make people happy. 
Rahul condemns our educational system and explains the reason for losing his first rank. It was due to his disagreement with his teacher regarding an answer in English Grammar. Although the teacher was wrong, he was adamant that he was correct. Rahul criticizes such an education system which curbs independent thinking and encourages blind adherence to whatever the teacher teaches.
12.   What does the letter writer fear?
Rahul expresses a fear that his rigid schooling will deprive him of the joy of learning. He tells his father that the over emphasis on his studies has taken away all his enjoyment from his childhood. He says that education does not seem to make people happy. 

Rahul condemns our educational system and explains the reason for losing his first rank. It was due to his disagreement with his teacher regarding an answer in English Grammar. Although the teacher was wrong, he was adamant that he was correct. Rahul criticizes such an education system which curbs independent thinking and encourages blind adherence to whatever the teacher teaches.


Oh Father, Dear Father – Raj Kinger

GOOD MANNERS - J.C.Hill



GOOD MANNERS                                                         -  J.C.Hill


About the author: John C Hill (1888 – 1943) is a famous British writer. He was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, and was eventually ordained as a priest.
Introduction:  J. C. Hill’s “Good Manners” is an adaptation from his famous book “An Introduction to Citizenship”. In his essay “Good Manners”, the famous British writer John C. Hill stresses on the importance of thoughtfulness and courtesy towards common people. Human life on this planet is not permanent. Hence one must try, as far as possible, to behave politely and to help others.
Good manners are based on having sympathy for others and acknowledging one’s own limitations. We should strive to maintain cordial relations amongst one another.
1.      How did the attack of influenza change the young man’s attitude towards old men?
Hill begins the essay with a story of a young man. Once there lived a young man who was very strong and healthy and carried on his work very actively. He was proud of his strength and had no sympathy for the “uninteresting folk” i.e. the old and the helpless people. One day he got an attack of influenza and became seriously ill. When he recovered, he became very weak. He could hardly walk. After a few days, he started working again. But he felt very tired while returning home from work. He felt sad looking at the strong young men sitting comfortably in the train or bus. It was then that he understood the misery of the weak and old people who were standing beside him throughout the journey. He realized that he will get back his strength after some days but those old people will never get back theirs. After recovering, he promptly gave up his seat for the weak and the aged in the bus or train. One should not feel proud of him and look down upon the weak.
2.      What made the young man lose his strength?
Hill begins the essay with a story of a young man. Once there lived a young man who was very strong and healthy and carried on his work very actively. He was proud of his strength and had no sympathy for the “uninteresting folk” i.e. the old and the helpless people. One day he got an attack of influenza and became seriously ill. When he recovered, he became very weak. He could hardly walk. After a few days, he started working again. But he felt very tired while returning home from work. He felt sad looking at the strong young men sitting comfortably in the train or bus. It was then that he understood the misery of the weak and old people who were standing beside him throughout the journey. He realized that he will get back his strength after some days but those old people will never get back theirs. After recovering, he promptly gave up his seat for the weak and the aged in the bus or train. One should not feel proud of him and look down upon the weak.
3.       Why should one not call an old man “an old fool”?
J.C.Hill gives a beautiful illustration saying that supposing an old man is hesitating to cross the road when young cyclist is racing fast. The cyclist should not get irritated and call him an old fool. He should not scold him for walking slowly. The man may be weak and tired or he may not be able to see or listen well. In the past, he might have been a famous soldier in war or perhaps lost one leg. Someday the young cyclist may face a similar situation. How would he feel if some school boys made fun of him in his old age?
 4.  What odds did the parents and teachers face in their lives?
Hill wants all the young boys and girls to learn that they are all fragile little things in this dangerous world. We are staying on this planet only for a very short time. We will never see those who we live with again in our lives. During our short stay here, we should help the world as much as we can. So we should behave politely and try to please and help as many people as possible.
A child would not know about the sufferings of his parents, teachers or older people because they never disclose them. They might have experienced severe blows in life and may be very tired. But they never complain about them. Instead parents try to invest everything they have for the well being of their children. So children should make life easy for them. Good manners come from sympathy with others and from understanding our own limitations.
5.      What good manners should we follow when we are with friends?
While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood.  We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.
 The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn't always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.
6.      It takes two to speak the truth one to speak and another to hear. Explain.
While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood.  We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.
The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn't always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.
7.      What did Thoreau say about uttering the truth?
While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood.  We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.
The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn't always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.
8.      How should one speak to others? why?
While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood.  We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.
 The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn't always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.
9.      Why does one have to express truth differently to different people?
While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood.  We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.
The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn't always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.
10.  What precautions should one take while speaking in company?
While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood.  We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.
 The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn't always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.
11.  Why did the Boy Scout make a joke of the Lady’s question?
Hill remarks that we should train ourselves to remain calm even if some persons ask us annoying or irritating questions. This is especially crucial in dealing with elderly people. We should also not take remarks too literally. Instead we should look for the real meaning in the statements.
Once an old lady asked a little boy whether he was a Boy, Scout or not.  He was irritated as his uniform was enough to tell that he was a Boy Scout. He rudely answered that he was 'two eggs on toast'. Perhaps she only meant that he looked nice in his uniform and in fact there was really nothing silly in her remark. Such rude and impolite behaviour towards older people is incorrect.
Similarly, when a friend asks you, “You will not be going past the post office, will you?” he actually expects you to go a little out of your way to oblige him. Try to help him if possible.
12.  Why do some people take remarks too literally?
Hill remarks that we should train ourselves to remain calm even if some persons ask us annoying or irritating questions. This is especially crucial in dealing with elderly people. We should also not take remarks too literally. Instead we should look for the real meaning in the statements.
Once an old lady asked a little boy whether he was a Boy, Scout or not.  He was irritated as his uniform was enough to tell that he was a Boy Scout. He rudely answered that he was 'two eggs on toast'. Perhaps she only meant that he looked nice in his uniform and in fact there was really nothing silly in her remark. Such rude and impolite behaviour towards older people is incorrect.
Similarly, when a friend asks you, “You will not be going past the post office, will you?” he actually expects you to go a little out of your way to oblige him. Try to help him if possible.
13.  What signs should one watch out for in a company?
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well-mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behavior.
Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
We should not say unpleasant things about someone behind his back. Such remarks will usually find its way to that person. Always adjust your remarks as there’s always a possibility that the very person would be overhearing you. Hence never gossip about other people.
14.  How could we save a lot of argument and anger?
J C Hill advises us to understand ourselves before teasing or talking ill about others. Many times we fail to understand our selves. There is always a possibility of us being mistaken.  People look at everything from their own perspective. J.C. Hill sites an example.
Some students were once shown a picture of a bull-fight and asked later to describe it from memory. One said, a bull's tongue was out. Actually the bull's mouth was closed, but because its head was turned to the side, its ear had looked like a tongue. So whenever we argue with somebody about a point, think that always there is always a chance of us going wrong.  Hence we should take care of what we argue and speak.
If we understand this truth, a lot of argument and anger could be avoided.
15.  Explain the writer’s remark: ‘No man really understands himself’.
J C Hill advises us to understand ourselves before teasing or talking ill about others. Many times we fail to understand our selves. There is always a possibility of us being mistaken.  People look at everything from their own perspective. J.C. Hill sites an example.
Some students were once shown a picture of a bull-fight and asked later to describe it from memory. One said, a bull's tongue was out. Actually the bull's mouth was closed, but because its head was turned to the side, its ear had looked like a tongue. So whenever we argue with somebody about a point, think that always there is always a chance of us going wrong.  Hence we should take care of what we argue and speak.
If we understand this truth, a lot of argument and anger could be avoided.
16.  Where do good manners ultimately come from?
Good manners come from having sympathy with others and from understanding our own limitations. We should realize that our version of truth is always a part of the larger truth. We should realize that we are unimportant little people on this earth who are going to pass this earth only once. Hence we must give up pride and learn to be humble. We should attempt to assist the world as much as we can in the short time that we are going to spend here.
17.  Bring out the significance of good manners in life according to the author.
J. C. Hill’s “Good Manners” is an adaptation from his famous book “An Introduction to Citizenship”. In his essay “Good Manners”, the famous British writer John C. Hill stresses on the importance of thoughtfulness and courtesy towards common people. Human life on this planet is not permanent. Hence one must try, as far as possible, to behave politely and to help others.

Good manners are based on having sympathy for others and acknowledging one’s own limitations. We should strive to maintain cordial relations among one another. Hill’s begins the essay with a story of a young man and points out that one should not feel proud of oneself and look down upon the weak.

27 April 2017

President's Speech at EFLU First Convocation


President's Speech at EFLU First Convocation 
 President's Speech on the first convocation of the English and Foreign Languages University Hyderabad on 26.04.2017 



  It is indeed a pleasure to be here today for the first convocation of the English and Foreign Languages University (EFLU).  It is a young university although with a rich history of teaching and teacher training since its inception as the Central Institute of English, which was established as part of the vision of our first Prime Minister, Pandit Nehru for new India in 1958 and later as Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages in 1972. 
2        Regional campuses were established in Shillong and Lucknow to extend its reach; before it became a Central University in 2007. It is indeed a matter of satisfaction that it has been dedicated to finding solutions to big challenges in language education and preparing students for leadership in a complex world.
3        This University bears six decades of experience in envisioning and materializing an educational model for a new India from this renowned city of Hyderabad, a city that stands apart as a city of poets, painters, artists and creative minds.  A smaller India in itself, it throbs with multiple languages & cultures, cuisine and crafts of its own. It is a multifaceted city with much cherished historical legacies and futuristic vision.
4        Out of the harmonious symphony of the old and modern in the city of Hyderabad, this University of international repute emerged due to hard work and collective energies of people with international reputation. Today EFLU stands out among the Universities of South Asia with specialized competencies in the areas of language, literary and cultural pedagogies, language sciences, teacher education and research.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
5        I am happy to know that the University has built a significant research profile in language and literary studies, cultural and inter-disciplinary studies. The university’s extensive and intensive explorations in research range  from natural language processing, classical and bhasha  literatures  and  cinema studies to philosophical studies on one hand and new experimental researches in cultural  theory, performance studies and media analysis on the other.  I am informed that in addition,  upcoming domains of research at the University are –
forensic linguistics using speech recognition for forensic purposes; 
digital humanities archiving and documenting digital databases for cultural memories and cultural creations of the country;  and
cognitive science research with focus in acoustic phonetics, language disorders and language processing.
6        With its expanding research profile EFLU can play a significant role in reorienting higher education in the country as well as in other emerging nations.  It should  be possible to develop educational packages from school to University level for training and for collaborative  teaching and research.
7        Recognizing the seminal role played by the University and assisting productive expansion of its founding vision, the Government of India has entrusted EFLU with several groundbreaking and important projects such as National University Students Skill Development, National Literacy Mission Authority and Massive Open Online Courses.
8        Acknowledging the eminent role that the University evinces in Teacher training and education, the Ministry of External Affairs entrusted the university with international responsibility for training diplomats and for designing trainer training programmes.  I am told that in this regard centres for English Language training have been set up in ASEAN countries and five new centres are coming up in African countries.
9        I am happy to know that the University has initiated outreach programs such as university – industry interface and mutually beneficial dialogue with public sector undertakings, social welfare organizations, government agencies, media houses and private educational institutions.
10      On this august occasion, as we celebrate the impressive achievements of this University, let me share with you some enduring reflections that ought to guide us in advancing our vision of education.  To my mind, knowledge must pave the path of life; and living must essentially encompass pursuit of the path of learning.  From times immemorial the continent of Asia, and South East Asia in particular, opened up novel paths of learning. Wherever the Buddha traversed - seeds of knowledge sprouted and flourished. Nalanda, after Takshashila, held the beacon of light very high for over a millennium across lands and seas and welcomed drifting seekers of knowledge and provided them a lasting resting place.
11      Today sustaining and reinvigorating higher education, in India as well as in other parts of the world, has become a major challenge, especially so in public institutions.  Challenges exist for such institutions, both from outside and inside.  At least four distinct factors impinge from outside as well as inside on the administration of an institution of higher learning; According to me, these are a) escalation of costs of learning; b) narrow pragmatics, i.e. market-oriented fast-track skill acquisition, as the sole goal of learning; c) the allure of invasive dominant communication systems depleting attention span; and d) corrosion of trust.
12      Any attempt to build or re-orient higher education in such a situation requires administrative acumen.  Administrative strength and sensitivity removes hurdles in the path of learning, and allows academics to thrive, as this University has displayed.
Friends,
13      Cynicism is an easy alibi to evade responsibility.  Any institutional future is dependent upon enabling the faculty, students and the staff to overcome cynicism.  One way of achieving this is making everyone a stakeholder in collaborative institution-building.  Immersive teaching supplemented by intensive research alone can advance the vision of the University in generating new knowledge and sharing it with everyone.
14      It is important to recall that the singular feature of  vidya-dana (gifting learning) that this country has extended on a planetary scale was aimed at attaining happiness for everyone. Sarve Jana Sukhino Bhavantu says the age old mantra from Upanishad.  This shloka should be the driving impulse of any conception of education in any period or place. Kennedy inspired graduates to strive for the one of the biggest goal: that is world peace.  He said; and I quote,
Too many of us think it is impossible. Too many of us think it is unreal. But that is a dangerous defeatist belief. It leads to the conclusion that war is inevitable – that mankind is doomed – that we are gripped by forces we cannot control.
While strongly advocating for peace he said and I quote, “Our job is not to accept that. Our problems are manmade – therefore they can be solved by man.  And Man can be as big as he wants.” Unquote
15      On this celebratory occasion, I wish all those who leave the portals of this prestigious University and carry its legacy as they move on – to attain a happy prosperous and meaningful life. I wish them Godspeed and all success in their future endeavours.
Thank you.
Jai Hind.

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