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7 July 2017

TS Gurukul PGT English Material

TS Gurukul PGT English Material


This material is collected from various sources such internet, textbooks and other sources for the benefit of the aspirants who are preparing for Mains examination. 
It covers only some portions of the prescribed syllabus. 

2 June 2017

Sarojini Naidu, The Nightingale of India


Sarojini Naidu, The Nightingale of India

Sarojini Naidu was an Indian independence activist, poet and politician. A renowned orator and accomplished poet, she is often known by the moniker ‘The Nightingale of India’. As a prodigious child, Naidu wrote the play "Maher Muneer", which earned her a scholarship to study abroad. She became the second woman president of the Indian National Congress. She was the first woman Governor of an Indian state after independence. Her collection of poems earned her literary acclaim. In 1905, she published her first book, a collection of poems, under the title of "Golden Threshold". A contemporary poet, Bappaditya Bandopadhyay quoted "Sarojini Naidu inspired the Indian renaissance movement and had a mission to improve the life of Indian woman.”
Childhood and Early Life
Sarojini Naidu (née Chattopadhyay) was born on February 13, 1879 in Hyderabad. Her father, Dr. Aghore Nath Chattopadhyay was a scientist, philosopher, and educator. He founded the Nizam College of Hyderabad. Her mother, Varada Sundari Devi was a poetess in the Bengali language. Dr. Aghore Nath Chattopadhyay was the first member of the Indian National Congress in Hyderabad. For his socio-political activities, Aghore Nath was dismissed from his position of Principal. One of his brothers, Virendranath Chattopadhyay, played key role in establishing the Berlin Committee. As a political activist involved in India’s on-going struggle for self-rule, he was heavily influenced by Communism. Her second brother Harindranath Chattopadhyay was a renowned poet and a successful playwright.  Her sister, Sunalini Devi was a dancer and actress
Since childhood, Sarojini was a very bright and intelligent child. She was proficient in multiple languages including English, Bengali, Urdu, Telugu and Persian. She topped her matriculation exams from Madras University. Her father wanted Sarojini to become a mathematician or scientist, but young Sarojini was attracted to poetry. 
She applied her prodigious literary skills to write a 1300 lines long poem in English titled ‘The Lady of the Lake’. Impressed with Sarojini’s skills of expressing emotions with appropriate words, Dr. Chattopadhyaya encouraged her works. Few months later, Sarojini, with assistance from her father, wrote the play "Maher Muneer" in the Persian language. 
Sarojini's father distributed some copies of the play among his friends and relatives. He also sent a copy to the Nizam of Hyderabad. Impressed with the works of the little child, the Nizam granted her a scholarship to study overseas. At the age of 16, she got admission in the King's College, England and later joined Girton College in Cambridge. There, she had the opportunity to meet prominent English authors like Arthur Simon and Edmond Gausse who inspired her to write on themes relevant to India. They advised Sarojini "To be a genuine Indian poet of Deccan, not a clever machine-made imitator of the English classics" which led her to seek inspiration from India’s natural beauty, religious pluralism and the essence of the country’s social milieu.
Sarojini met Muthyala Govindarajulu Naidu, a South Indian, and a non-Brahmin physician while she was studying in England and fell in love. After returning to India, she married him at the age of 19, with his family’s blessings. They were married by the Brahmo Marriage Act (1872), in Madras in 1898. The marriage took place at a time when inter-caste marriages were not allowed and tolerated in the Indian society. Her marriage was a very happy one. They had four children. 

Role in the Indian National Movement
Sarojini was initiated into the Indian political arena by iconic stalwarts of the Indian freedom struggle, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Gandhi. She was deeply affected by the partition of Bengal in 1905 and decided to join the Indian freedom struggle. She met regularly with Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who in turn introduced her to the otherleaders of the Indian freedom movement. Gokhale urged her to devote her intellect and education for the cause. She took a respite from writing and devoted herself fully to the political cause. She met Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Her relationship with Gandhi was that of mutual respect as well as of benign humour. She famously called Gandhi ‘Mickey Mouse’ and quipped "It costs a lot to keep Gandhi poor!”
She met Jawaharlal Nehru in 1916, worked with him for the disheartening conditions of the Indigo workers of Champaran in the western district of Bihar and fought vehemently with the British for their rights. Sarojini Naidu travelled all over India and delivered speeches on welfare of youth, dignity of labor, women's emancipation and nationalism. In 1917, she helped found the Women’s India Association with Annie Besant and other prominent leaders. She also presented to Congress the need to involve more women in the freedom struggle. She travelled extensively to the United States of America and many European countries as the flag-bearer of the Indian Nationalist struggle.

In March 1919, the British government passed the Rowlatt Act by which the possession of seditious documents was deemed illegal. Mahatma Gandhi organized the Non-Cooperation Movement to protest and Naidu was the first to join the movement. Sarojini Naidu religiously followed Gandhi’s example and actively supported his other campaigns like the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, the Khilafat issue, the Sabarmati Pact, the Satyagraha Pledge and the Civil Disobedience Movement. When Gandhi was arrested after the Salt March to Dandi in 1930, she led the Dharasana Satyagraha with other leaders. She accompanied Gandhi to London to take part in the Round Table Talks with the British Government in 1931. Her political activities and role in the Freedom struggle led to several stints in prison – in 1930, 1932, and 1942. Her 1942 arrest led to imprisonment for 21 months.
She went to England in 1919 as a member of the All-India Home Rule Deputation. In January 1924, she was one of the two delegates of the Indian National Congress to attend the East African Indian Congress. As a result of her selfless contribution to the cause of freedom, she was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress Party in 1925.
Naidu played an immense role in presenting the nuances of the Indian non-violent struggle for freedom to the world. She travelled to Europe and even to the United states to disseminate Gandhian principles and was partly responsible for establishing him as this icon of peace.
After the independence of India, she became the first governor of the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh) and remained in the role till her death in 1949. Her birthday, March 2, is honoured as Women's Day in India.

Literary Achievements
Besides her role and contribution to the Indian Nationalist Movement, Sarojini Naidu is also revered for her contribution in the field of Indian poetry. Many of her works were transformed into songs. She drew her inspiration from nature as well as surrounding daily life and her poetry echoed with the ethos of her patriotism. In 1905, her collection of poems was published under the title "Golden Threshold". Later, she also published two other collections called "The Bird of Time", and "The Broken Wings", both of which attracted huge readership in both India and England. Apart from poetry, she also penned articles and essays like ‘Words of Freedom’ on her political beliefs and social issues like women empowerment.
Death & Legacy
Sarojini Naidu was the first women Governor of Uttar Pradesh. On 2nd March 1949, Sarojini Naidu died at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. She lived her glorious life by her own words, “As long as I have life, as long as blood flows through this arm of mine, I shall not leave the cause of freedom…I am only a woman, only a poet. But as a woman, I give to you the weapons of faith and courage and the shield of fortitude. And as a poet, I fling out the banner of song and sound, the bugle call to battle. How shall I kindle the flame which shall waken you men from slavery...” Her childhood residence at Nampally was bequeathed to the University of Hyderabad by her family and it was christened as ‘The Golden Threshold’ after Naidu’s 1905 publication. The University renamed its School of Fine Arts and Communication as ‘Sarojini Naidu School of Arts and Communication’ to honour the Nightingale of India.


22 May 2017

GANDHI NAMES

GANDHI NAMES 


African Gandhi ............................ Kennath Kounda
Modern Gandhi ................................... Baba Amthe
Burmese Gandhi ........................................Ong San
Kosavo Gandhi............................... Ibrahim Rugeva
Kerala Gandhi ...................................... K. Kelappan
Mayyazhi Gandhi ................... I.K. Kumaran Master
American Gandhi ...................... Martin Luther King
Sreelankan Gandhi ............................... Ariya Retne
Frontier Gandhi................. Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan

GENERAL STUDIES - POPULAR FATHERS

GENERAL STUDIES - POPULAR FATHERS

POPULAR FATHERS
World 

Father of Psychology.................. Sigmund Freud
Father of Cloning ............................... Ian Wilmut
Father of Printing .............................. Guttenberg
Father of History ............................... Herodotus
Father of Economics ........................ Adam Smith
Father of Philosophy ............................ Socrates
Father of Sociology ................. Augustus Comte
Father of English Poetry .......... Geoffrey Chaucer
Father of Biology.................................. Aristotle
Father of Essay................................. Montaigne
Father of Medicine.......................... Hippocrates
Father of Homeopathy .............. Samuel Haniman
Father of Socialism......................... Robert Owen
Father of Scientific Socialism.................Karl Marx
Father of Co-operation ................... Robert Owen
Father of Jurisprudence.................. John Locke
Father of Atom Bomb .......................... Otto Hahn
Father of Genetics........................ Gregor Mendel
Father of Motor Car ......................... Henry Ford
Father of Reformation ................... Martin Luther
Father of Greek Democracy .............. Clesthenes
Father of Bangladesh ....... Sheikh Mujibur Rehman
Father of Pakistan ............. Muhammed Ali Jinnah
Father of Tanzania ......................... Julius Nyrere
Father of Mathematics ...................... Pythagorus
Father of Modern Cartoon ........ William Hogarth

Father of Modern Computer.......... Charles Babbage
Father of Nuclear Physics ...... : Ernest Rutherford
Father of Modern Drama ............. Henrik J. Ibsen
Father of Modern Tourism ............ Thomas Cook
Father of Painting .................. Leonardo Da Vinci
Father of Green Revolution ........Norman Borlaug
Father of Renaissance ............................ Petrarch

INDIA

Father of the Nation ...................Mahatma Gandhi
Father of Ayurveda ................................ Athreya
Father of Astronomy....................... Varahamihira
Father of Sanskrit Drama ....................... Kalidasa
Father of Indian Renaissance.......... Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Father of Surgery.................................... Susruta
Father of Indian Unrest .............Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Father of Indian Budget ........ Professor Mahalanobis
Father of Indian Painting............... Nandalal Bose
Father of Indian Cinema .............. Dada Saheb Phalke
Father of Indian Engineering ............ M.Visweswariah
Father of Indian Green Revolution .......................... Dr M.S. Swaminathan
Father of Indian Railway ............. Lord Dalhousie
Father of Co-operative Movement in India .......... Frederic Nicholson
Father of Indian Printing ................ James Hickey
Father of Local Self-Government in India ... Lord Ripon


Father of Malayalam Language ........ Ezhuthachan
Father of Modern Travancore ... Marthanda Varma
Father of Kerala Renaissance ... Sree Narayana Guru
Father of Modern Hinduism .. Adi Shankaracharya

GENERAL STUDIES - POPULAR FATHERS

General studies Largest in the World

General studies

Largest in the World 


Largest continent ........................................... Asia
Largest ocean ............................................... Pacific
Largest river .............................................. Amazon
Largest river basin ..................................... Amazon
Largest lake (salt water) ....................... Caspian sea
Largest lake (fresh water) ..........Lake Superior (North America)
Largest artificial lake ..... Lake Mead at Hoover Dam, (USA). Originally known as Boulder.
Largest bay ................ Hudson Bay (North Canada)
Largest gulf ..................................... The Gulf of Mexico
Largest gorge ........................ Grand Canyon (USA)
Largest sea .................................... South China sea
Largest delta....... Sundarbans (India & Bangladesh)
Largest peninsula ........................................ Arabia
Largest island ......................................... Greenland
Largest country (in area) .............................. Russia
Largest country (in population)...................... China
Largest temple` ................... Angkorwat (Cambodia)
Largest archipelago .................................Indonesia
Largest airport .......... King Khalid International Airport at Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
Largest church ................St.Peter's Basilica, (Rome)
Largest mosque ...... Sha Faisal Mosque (Islamabad)
Largest embassy............ Russian Embassy (Beijing)
Largest war plane .......................... Mirage (France)
Largest prison ............................. Kharkov (Russia)
 Largest hotel ........... MGM Grand Hotel and Casino, Las Vegas (USA)
Largest desert.................................. Sahara (Africa)
Largest forest ........................Coniferous Forests of Northern Russia
Largest stadium ................. Strahove (Czech Republic)
Largest library ... United States Library of Congress
Largest museum .................... American Museum of Natural History (New York)
Largest animal ....................................... Blue whale

Largest land animal ........... The African Bush Elephant

Largest democracy ......................................... India
Largest electorate ........................................... India
Largest town ......................... Mt. Isa (Queensland)
Largest palace ..................... Imperial Palace, Beijing
Largest dam........................... Three Gorges (China)
Largest landmass................The Eurasian Landmass
Largest park ...... Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada)
Largest zoo ...... Krugal National Park (South Africa)
Largest river island ......................... Majuli (Assam)
Largest inland sea .......................Mediterranean sea
Largest canal ........................ Keil Canal in Germany
Largest reef ............... Great Barrier Reef, (Australia)
Largest city (population)................... Tokyo (Japan)
Largest estuary..................................... Ob (Russia)
Largest cave ........ Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (USA)
Largest strait ........................................ Tartar strait
Largest wall ......................... The Great Wall (China)
Largest cemetery ....................... Leningrad (Russia)
Largest railway station ......... Grand Central Terminal (New York)
Largest university building ..................................... University of Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
Largest open university ........Indira Gandhi National Open University (New Delhi)
Largest steel plant ..........Nippon Steel plant (Japan)
Largest wingspan ....................................Albatross
Largest active volcano ............Mauna lao on Hawaii
Largest planet ............................................. Jupiter
Largest bird .................................................Ostrich

Largest seabird .......................................Albatross
Largest diamond ................................. The Cullinan
Largest parliament. The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
Largest north to the south stretch of land ........ America
Largest cold desert ........................Gobi (Mongolia)
Largest plateau ................................... Pamir (Tibet)
Largest mountain range ..................... The Himalaya
Largest statue ............................... Statue of liberty
Largest bank .................... World bank (Washington) Mammoth Cave is the longest cave system known in the world. It is situated in USA. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27, 1981, and an international Biosphere Reserve on September 26, 1990. It is centred around the Green River, with a tributary, the Nolin River, feeding into the Green just inside the park.
Largest army.................................................. China
Largest cricket stadium ......... Melbourne (Australia)
Largest navy .................................................. USA
Largest airforce............................................... USA
Largest natural satellite ............. Ganymede (Jupiter)
Largest port .......................................... New Jersey
Largest book publishing company .......................... Mc Graw Hill (New York)
Largest Dome in the World... Astrodome, in Housten (U.S.A)
Largest Epic ........................................ Mahabharat
Largest carnivorous mammal ................... Polar Bear


General studies

Largest in the World 

National Symbols National Anthem of India

National Symbols
National Anthem  of India

The song Jana gana mana is the National Anthem of India which, was composed by Rabindra Nath Tagore in 1911, originally in Bengali.  It was adopted by Constituent Assembly on January 24, 1950 in its Hindi version.  The song Jana gana mana was first published in January, 1912 under the title ‘Bharat Vidhata’ in Tattva Bodhini Patrika.  The song was translated in English in 1919 with the title “Morning song of India’’.  It was first sung at the Calcutta Session of Congress on December 27, 1911.  Playing time of full version of National Anthem is 52 seconds while it is 20 seconds for first and last lines of the stanza.

National Symbols
National Anthem  of India

National Symbols National Emblem of India

National Symbols
National Emblem of India



National Emblem is adopted from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Asoka on January 26, 1950.  In this emblem, only three lions are visible, the fourth lion being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left. The bell-shaped lotus (as in the original) has been omitted. The other animals present in the emblem are - An Elephant and a Lion.  The words Satyameva Jayate are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script. These words are taken from Mundaka Upanishad.  SThe similar structure of Sarnath Lion capital was also found in Thailand.

National Symbols
National Emblem of India

National Symbols National Flag of India

National Symbols
National Flag of India



National Flag was adopted by Constituent Assembly of India on July 22, 1947. This tricolour flag was first accepted by the Indian National Congress in 1931, having Charkha in place of today’s Chakra. It is a horizontal tricolour of deep Saffron at the top (stands for courage, sacrifice and renunciation), White at the middle (shows truth and purity in thoughts), dark Green at the bottom (symbol of life abundance and prosperity).
 A wheel (Chakra) in the centre of the white strip is the symbol of progress and movement. It has 24 spokes.  Supreme Court declared the right to hoist the lag as a Fundamental Right under Article 19 (i) (a) of the Constitution in 2002. Flag hoisting in India is regulated by flag code of India, 2002.  The Flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya and first time, the flag was hoisted by Sacchindra Prasad Bose in 1906 in Calcutta and later on in year 1907, an another tricolour flag was unfurled by Madam Bhikaji Cama in stuttgart. The first flag committee was headed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

National Symbols
National Flag of India

11 May 2017

Oh Father, Dear Father – Raj Kinger


Oh Father, Dear Father 

                                                   – Raj Kinger

1.       Why is the letter written?
‘Oh Father, Dear Father’ by Raj Kinger is a heart-wrenching letter addressed to a father by his son. The letter writer Rahul is the class topper in his school who slips to the second rank for losing a quarter marks. This letter is his anguished plea to his father who scolds him for losing his first rank. Rahul is against the India educational system which is characterized by rote learning without any practical exposure to the real world. He condemns the emphasis placed on examinations, marks and ranks.
2.       What is the father’s advice to the writer of the letter?
Rahul and his father are poles apart. Rahul’s father is a typical rigid-minded Indian parent who believes in high score. He leads a complicated and boring life. He earns well, believes in the importance of money and has a set of rules written for his son. He has a specific approach to life and cannot expect his son to go against his approach. He has an uncompromising attitude and has always taught his son to be moulded in the mould of his beliefs. He often asks his son to think twice before studying and before answering the papers. He scolds his son for losing his first rank.
Rahul, on the other hand, is intelligent but loves a simple and natural life. He is inspired by the life style of his grandparents. Rahul learns from his grandparents that peace of mind and happiness is the most important things in life. For Rahul, practical education matters more than theoretical examinations. In his opinion, high scores are of no use if one is unable to put his theoretical knowledge into practice. Real education is that which comes handy in our day-today life. For instance it should teach us how to protect our plants from pests, how to fix a fuse or how to make your own desk using your carpenter tools.
(Rahul’s argument against the education system in India is quite convincing. He is against the Indian educational system which is characterized by rote learning without any practical exposure to the real world. He condemns the emphasis placed on examinations, marks and ranks.)
3.      Write brief note on the relationship between the letter writer and his father?
Rahul and his father are poles apart. Rahul’s father is a typical rigid-minded Indian parent who believes in high score. He leads a complicated and boring life. He earns well, believes in the importance of money and has a set of rules written for his son. He has a specific approach to life and cannot expect his son to go against his approach. He has an uncompromising attitude and has always taught his son to be moulded in the mould of his beliefs. He often asks his son to think twice before studying and before answering the papers. He scolds his son for losing his first rank.
Rahul, on the other hand, is intelligent but loves a simple and natural life. He is inspired by the life style of his grandparents. Rahul learns from his grandparents that peace of mind and happiness is the most important things in life. For Rahul, practical education matters more than theoretical examinations. In his opinion, high scores are of no use if one is unable to put his theoretical knowledge into practice. Real education is that which comes handy in our day-today life. For instance it should teach us how to protect our plants from pests, how to fix a fuse or how to make your own desk using your carpenter tools.
(Rahul’s argument against the education system in India is quite convincing. He is against the Indian educational system which is characterized by rote learning without any practical exposure to the real world. He condemns the emphasis placed on examinations, marks and ranks.)
4.      What is the letter writer’s perception of literacy?
Rahul and his father are poles apart. Rahul’s father is a typical rigid-minded Indian parent who believes in high score. He leads a complicated and boring life. He earns well, believes in the importance of money and has a set of rules written for his son. He has a specific approach to life and cannot expect his son to go against his approach. He has an uncompromising attitude and has always taught his son to be moulded in the mould of his beliefs. He often asks his son to think twice before studying and before answering the papers. He scolds his son for losing his first rank.
Rahul, on the other hand, is intelligent but loves a simple and natural life. He is inspired by the life style of his grandparents. Rahul learns from his grandparents that peace of mind and happiness is the most important things in life. For Rahul, practical education matters more than theoretical examinations. In his opinion, high scores are of no use if one is unable to put his theoretical knowledge into practice. Real education is that which comes handy in our day-today life. For instance it should teach us how to protect our plants from pests, how to fix a fuse or how to make your own desk using your carpenter tools.
(Rahul’s argument against the education system in India is quite convincing. He is against the Indian educational system which is characterized by rote learning without any practical exposure to the real world. He condemns the emphasis placed on examinations, marks and ranks.)
5.      How does the letter writer critique the education system in India? Does he make a convincing argument? Why/ Why not?
Rahul and his father are poles apart. Rahul’s father is a typical rigid-minded Indian parent who believes in high score. He leads a complicated and boring life. He earns well, believes in the importance of money and has a set of rules written for his son. He has a specific approach to life and cannot expect his son to go against his approach. He has an uncompromising attitude and has always taught his son to be moulded in the mould of his beliefs. He often asks his son to think twice before studying and before answering the papers. He scolds his son for losing his first rank.
Rahul, on the other hand, is intelligent but loves a simple and natural life. He is inspired by the life style of his grandparents. Rahul learns from his grandparents that peace of mind and happiness is the most important things in life. For Rahul, practical education matters more than theoretical examinations. In his opinion, high scores are of no use if one is unable to put his theoretical knowledge into practice. Real education is that which comes handy in our day-today life. For instance it should teach us how to protect our plants from pests, how to fix a fuse or how to make your own desk using your carpenter tools.
Rahul’s argument against the education system in India is quite convincing. He is against the Indian educational system which is characterized by rote learning without any practical exposure to the real world. He condemns the emphasis placed on examinations, marks and ranks.
6.       How did the letter writer’s teacher react to his asking her a question?
Rahul has an unpleasant experience with his Biology teacher. When his Rose plant is attacked by pests, Rahul seeks advice of his teacher to save his plant. But the teacher gets irritated as she thinks it a question out of their syllabus and asks him to approach a gardener for advice. The teacher serves as a warning to all those teachers who do not show any interest or reverence towards their profession and mould the students into mere mechanical objects.
7.      What kind of childhood does the letter writer wish he had?
Rahul loved the peaceful and happy childhood of his grandparents. Rahul’s grandfather used to speak of a carefree and beautiful childhood, of the days when he spent plucking mangoes and guavas from their jameen, of picnics on the banks of the river where men cooked mouth-watering food and of playing marbles and gilli danda. During his grandfather’s childhood, studies were only secondary for our survival. The major subject in their education was living and experiencing.
Rahul had always found his grandfather in the right place. He was a man who believed in simplicity in sharp contrast to Rahul’s father. Rahul asks his father whether his grandfather was a liar in order to remind him that his grandfather’s life was the one worth living and not any failure. Seventy years He refers to the 70 years age of his grandfather and questions his father if the world has turned upside down during this period. It was during these 70 years that his grandfather had acquired a load of experience which Rahul considers ideal. 
8.      What approach did the letter writer’s grandfather have towards studies?
Rahul loved the peaceful and happy childhood of his grandparents. Rahul’s grandfather used to speak of a carefree and beautiful childhood, of the days when he spent plucking mangoes and guavas from their jameen, of picnics on the banks of the river where men cooked mouth-watering food and of playing marbles and gilli danda. During his grandfather’s childhood, studies were only secondary for our survival. The major subject in their education was living and experiencing.
Rahul had always found his grandfather in the right place. He was a man who believed in simplicity in sharp contrast to Rahul’s father. Rahul asks his father whether his grandfather was a liar in order to remind him that his grandfather’s life was the one worth living and not any failure. Seventy years He refers to the 70 years age of his grandfather and questions his father if the world has turned upside down during this period. It was during these 70 years that his grandfather had acquired a load of experience which Rahul considers ideal. 
9.      Describe the letter writer’s grandparents and their outlooks towards studies and life.
Rahul loved the peaceful and happy childhood of his grandparents. Rahul’s grandfather used to speak of a carefree and beautiful childhood, of the days when he spent plucking mangoes and guavas from their jameen, of picnics on the banks of the river where men cooked mouth-watering food and of playing marbles and gilli danda. During his grandfather’s childhood, studies were only secondary for our survival. The major subject in their education was living and experiencing.
Rahul had always found his grandfather in the right place. He was a man who believed in simplicity in sharp contrast to Rahul’s father. Rahul asks his father whether his grandfather was a liar in order to remind him that his grandfather’s life was the one worth living and not any failure. Seventy years He refers to the 70 years age of his grandfather and questions his father if the world has turned upside down during this period. It was during these 70 years that his grandfather had acquired a load of experience which Rahul considers ideal. 
10.   Why is the letter writer’s grandmother wise?
Rahul’s grandmother was semi-literate while his mother was highly qualified. Yet his grandmother lived a happy and contended life and was very wise. She took delight in cooking, gardening and reading the Gita. Rahul’s mother, on the other hand, was always tensed and nervous. Rahul questions his father whether literacy has become a harbinger of restlessness, fear and frustration. 
11.   How did the letter writer lose his first rank?
Rahul expresses a fear that his rigid schooling will deprive him of the joy of learning. He tells his father that the over emphasis on his studies has taken away all his enjoyment from his childhood. He says that education does not seem to make people happy. 
Rahul condemns our educational system and explains the reason for losing his first rank. It was due to his disagreement with his teacher regarding an answer in English Grammar. Although the teacher was wrong, he was adamant that he was correct. Rahul criticizes such an education system which curbs independent thinking and encourages blind adherence to whatever the teacher teaches.
12.   What does the letter writer fear?
Rahul expresses a fear that his rigid schooling will deprive him of the joy of learning. He tells his father that the over emphasis on his studies has taken away all his enjoyment from his childhood. He says that education does not seem to make people happy. 

Rahul condemns our educational system and explains the reason for losing his first rank. It was due to his disagreement with his teacher regarding an answer in English Grammar. Although the teacher was wrong, he was adamant that he was correct. Rahul criticizes such an education system which curbs independent thinking and encourages blind adherence to whatever the teacher teaches.


Oh Father, Dear Father – Raj Kinger

GOOD MANNERS - J.C.Hill



GOOD MANNERS                                                         -  J.C.Hill


About the author: John C Hill (1888 – 1943) is a famous British writer. He was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, and was eventually ordained as a priest.
Introduction:  J. C. Hill’s “Good Manners” is an adaptation from his famous book “An Introduction to Citizenship”. In his essay “Good Manners”, the famous British writer John C. Hill stresses on the importance of thoughtfulness and courtesy towards common people. Human life on this planet is not permanent. Hence one must try, as far as possible, to behave politely and to help others.
Good manners are based on having sympathy for others and acknowledging one’s own limitations. We should strive to maintain cordial relations amongst one another.
1.      How did the attack of influenza change the young man’s attitude towards old men?
Hill begins the essay with a story of a young man. Once there lived a young man who was very strong and healthy and carried on his work very actively. He was proud of his strength and had no sympathy for the “uninteresting folk” i.e. the old and the helpless people. One day he got an attack of influenza and became seriously ill. When he recovered, he became very weak. He could hardly walk. After a few days, he started working again. But he felt very tired while returning home from work. He felt sad looking at the strong young men sitting comfortably in the train or bus. It was then that he understood the misery of the weak and old people who were standing beside him throughout the journey. He realized that he will get back his strength after some days but those old people will never get back theirs. After recovering, he promptly gave up his seat for the weak and the aged in the bus or train. One should not feel proud of him and look down upon the weak.
2.      What made the young man lose his strength?
Hill begins the essay with a story of a young man. Once there lived a young man who was very strong and healthy and carried on his work very actively. He was proud of his strength and had no sympathy for the “uninteresting folk” i.e. the old and the helpless people. One day he got an attack of influenza and became seriously ill. When he recovered, he became very weak. He could hardly walk. After a few days, he started working again. But he felt very tired while returning home from work. He felt sad looking at the strong young men sitting comfortably in the train or bus. It was then that he understood the misery of the weak and old people who were standing beside him throughout the journey. He realized that he will get back his strength after some days but those old people will never get back theirs. After recovering, he promptly gave up his seat for the weak and the aged in the bus or train. One should not feel proud of him and look down upon the weak.
3.       Why should one not call an old man “an old fool”?
J.C.Hill gives a beautiful illustration saying that supposing an old man is hesitating to cross the road when young cyclist is racing fast. The cyclist should not get irritated and call him an old fool. He should not scold him for walking slowly. The man may be weak and tired or he may not be able to see or listen well. In the past, he might have been a famous soldier in war or perhaps lost one leg. Someday the young cyclist may face a similar situation. How would he feel if some school boys made fun of him in his old age?
 4.  What odds did the parents and teachers face in their lives?
Hill wants all the young boys and girls to learn that they are all fragile little things in this dangerous world. We are staying on this planet only for a very short time. We will never see those who we live with again in our lives. During our short stay here, we should help the world as much as we can. So we should behave politely and try to please and help as many people as possible.
A child would not know about the sufferings of his parents, teachers or older people because they never disclose them. They might have experienced severe blows in life and may be very tired. But they never complain about them. Instead parents try to invest everything they have for the well being of their children. So children should make life easy for them. Good manners come from sympathy with others and from understanding our own limitations.
5.      What good manners should we follow when we are with friends?
While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood.  We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.
 The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn't always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.
6.      It takes two to speak the truth one to speak and another to hear. Explain.
While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood.  We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.
The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn't always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.
7.      What did Thoreau say about uttering the truth?
While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood.  We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.
The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn't always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.
8.      How should one speak to others? why?
While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood.  We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.
 The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn't always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.
9.      Why does one have to express truth differently to different people?
While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood.  We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.
The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn't always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.
10.  What precautions should one take while speaking in company?
While in company, we should be very careful in observing good manners. We should speak clearly and sufficiently loud for others to hear us. It is our duty to make ourselves understood.  We should not talk too much and should always give others a chance to speak. Good listeners get enough time to think so that when they speak, they can speak clearly.
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well- mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
Strange as it may seem, many times, what we speak will not be the truth. . If we speak of some subject, we should be aware of the fact that the listener might have a different idea about what we are talking.
 The well known American writer Thoreau once said that “It takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and another to hear”. Truth differs from person to person. Socialism might be the State control of commerce and industry to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. What we think to be true needn't always be true. We should not assume that we alone know the whole truth as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken.
11.  Why did the Boy Scout make a joke of the Lady’s question?
Hill remarks that we should train ourselves to remain calm even if some persons ask us annoying or irritating questions. This is especially crucial in dealing with elderly people. We should also not take remarks too literally. Instead we should look for the real meaning in the statements.
Once an old lady asked a little boy whether he was a Boy, Scout or not.  He was irritated as his uniform was enough to tell that he was a Boy Scout. He rudely answered that he was 'two eggs on toast'. Perhaps she only meant that he looked nice in his uniform and in fact there was really nothing silly in her remark. Such rude and impolite behaviour towards older people is incorrect.
Similarly, when a friend asks you, “You will not be going past the post office, will you?” he actually expects you to go a little out of your way to oblige him. Try to help him if possible.
12.  Why do some people take remarks too literally?
Hill remarks that we should train ourselves to remain calm even if some persons ask us annoying or irritating questions. This is especially crucial in dealing with elderly people. We should also not take remarks too literally. Instead we should look for the real meaning in the statements.
Once an old lady asked a little boy whether he was a Boy, Scout or not.  He was irritated as his uniform was enough to tell that he was a Boy Scout. He rudely answered that he was 'two eggs on toast'. Perhaps she only meant that he looked nice in his uniform and in fact there was really nothing silly in her remark. Such rude and impolite behaviour towards older people is incorrect.
Similarly, when a friend asks you, “You will not be going past the post office, will you?” he actually expects you to go a little out of your way to oblige him. Try to help him if possible.
13.  What signs should one watch out for in a company?
When in a company, one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labeled as a well-mannered person. Some people are delighted to speak continuously wherever they are. They think that everyone is delighted by their company, but in fact everyone there would be exhausted and angry at their behavior.
Hence one should not do all the talking for himself; he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the other person a full and patient hearing. If they do not speak, it means that they do not want us to talk too.
We should not say unpleasant things about someone behind his back. Such remarks will usually find its way to that person. Always adjust your remarks as there’s always a possibility that the very person would be overhearing you. Hence never gossip about other people.
14.  How could we save a lot of argument and anger?
J C Hill advises us to understand ourselves before teasing or talking ill about others. Many times we fail to understand our selves. There is always a possibility of us being mistaken.  People look at everything from their own perspective. J.C. Hill sites an example.
Some students were once shown a picture of a bull-fight and asked later to describe it from memory. One said, a bull's tongue was out. Actually the bull's mouth was closed, but because its head was turned to the side, its ear had looked like a tongue. So whenever we argue with somebody about a point, think that always there is always a chance of us going wrong.  Hence we should take care of what we argue and speak.
If we understand this truth, a lot of argument and anger could be avoided.
15.  Explain the writer’s remark: ‘No man really understands himself’.
J C Hill advises us to understand ourselves before teasing or talking ill about others. Many times we fail to understand our selves. There is always a possibility of us being mistaken.  People look at everything from their own perspective. J.C. Hill sites an example.
Some students were once shown a picture of a bull-fight and asked later to describe it from memory. One said, a bull's tongue was out. Actually the bull's mouth was closed, but because its head was turned to the side, its ear had looked like a tongue. So whenever we argue with somebody about a point, think that always there is always a chance of us going wrong.  Hence we should take care of what we argue and speak.
If we understand this truth, a lot of argument and anger could be avoided.
16.  Where do good manners ultimately come from?
Good manners come from having sympathy with others and from understanding our own limitations. We should realize that our version of truth is always a part of the larger truth. We should realize that we are unimportant little people on this earth who are going to pass this earth only once. Hence we must give up pride and learn to be humble. We should attempt to assist the world as much as we can in the short time that we are going to spend here.
17.  Bring out the significance of good manners in life according to the author.
J. C. Hill’s “Good Manners” is an adaptation from his famous book “An Introduction to Citizenship”. In his essay “Good Manners”, the famous British writer John C. Hill stresses on the importance of thoughtfulness and courtesy towards common people. Human life on this planet is not permanent. Hence one must try, as far as possible, to behave politely and to help others.

Good manners are based on having sympathy for others and acknowledging one’s own limitations. We should strive to maintain cordial relations among one another. Hill’s begins the essay with a story of a young man and points out that one should not feel proud of oneself and look down upon the weak.

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